Comment utiliser les VPN et continuer à accéder à certains sites censurés ?

Texte par :Yannick Izabayo

Sans les VPN, votre connexion Internet peut facilement être détectée ou surveillée par d’autres personnes. Ces programmes protègent notamment votre historique de navigation, les consultations en direct de médias en ligne, vos coordonnées bancaires, vos mots de passe et se révèle indispensable pour contourner les mesures de censure du Web qui existent dans de nombreux pays.

Sans un dispositif VPN, tout ce que vous effectuez sur le Web et les réseaux sociaux peut être retracé jusqu’à votre appareil à l’aide de votre adresse Internet. Elle est siglée, par convention internationale, par les lettres IP. Cette adresse qui est une série de numéros uniques, liée à votre appareil connecté, peut révéler l’emplacement physique de votre ordinateur ou de votre smartphone avec la possibilité de vous localiser en temps réel.

Mais lorsque vous êtes connecté au moyen d’un VPN, votre activité sur Internet est cryptée et votre véritable adresse IP est masquée. Personne ne peut voir qui vous êtes ou la nature de vos activités en ligne, pas même les fournisseurs d’accès Internet, les autorités surveillant votre connexion ou des pirates informatiques pressés de voler vos informations personnelles.

a seule chose qu’un FAI ou une autorité étatique de surveillance peut constater est l’existence d’un trafic de données chiffrées entre un serveur informatique situé, par exemple, dans une autre région du monde et un appareil non identifié dans votre pays. Alors que des dizaines de pays censurent les contenus de la Toile, la seule façon de contourner ces restrictions est donc de passer par les réseaux d’un VPN, afin d’accéder aux sites Web bloqués. 

VPN : mode d’emploi 

Pour installer un logiciel VPN sur votre machine, il convient au préalable de se poser les bonnes questions. Un VPN pour quoi faire ? Et quel en sera mon usage : s’agit-il de télécharger des fichiers, de consulter des sites bloqués, de suivre en direct des émissions de télévision ou de radio sur la Toile ? Une fois votre usage déterminé, vous devez, en tout premier, bien choisir votre fournisseur de solution VPN, selon vos besoins de navigation sur Internet.

S’il existe pléthore de VPN payants très efficaces qui demandent toutefois de souscrire à un abonnement mensuel, certains de ces logiciels sont gratuits. Mais prudence… Aucun de ces programmes n’offre de niveaux de protection satisfaisante.

Pire, la plupart des concepteurs de ces logiciels gracieusement offerts vivent du commerce de données, en vendant vos informations de connexion à des entreprises tierces ou à des États. La plupart des offres gratuites sont clairement des arnaques, avec l’installation en prime et à votre insu de logiciels espions ou rançonneurs.  

ProtonVPN, le meilleur du gratuit  

Une exception figure dans le paysage peu reluisant des VPN gratuits : il s’agit de ProtonVPN de la société suisse Proton Technologies AG, qui est aussi connue pour son système de messagerie cryptée ProtonMail. Pour installer le logiciel dans sa version gratuite, rien de plus simple. Sur la page officielle du site Proton, vous cliquez sur le bouton situé au centre de votre écran “Obtenir ProtonVPN maintenant”, qui vous orientera vers une page de tarification sur laquelle figure évidemment l’offre gratuite.

Pour télécharger le logiciel, vous devez vous inscrire, en renseignant un nom d’utilisateur, un mot de passe et une adresse e-mail [courriel] valide. Vous recevrez ensuite un code d’acceptation afin d’activer votre compte. Une fois toutes ces étapes effectuées, ProtonVPN s’ouvre automatiquement pour une utilisation immédiate ou, si ce n’est pas le cas, vous pouvez cliquer sur “Connexion rapide”. L’interface de ProtonVPN est très agréable, intuitive et claire, il suffit de suivre les instructions qui s’affichent alors sur votre écran. 

Avantages et inconvénients des VPN 

Quels sont les avantages et les inconvénients de ce VPN dans sa version gratuite ?  Les paramètres de sécurité que propose le logiciel sont excellents et garantissent, notamment, la non-conservation des logs [ou journal] sur les serveurs informatiques distants installés par la société suisse. Rappelons qu’un fichier log permet de stocker un historique des événements numériques sur un serveur, un ordinateur ou une application.

Ce “journal” qui se présente sous la forme d’un fichier, ou équivalent, liste et horodate, par exemple, tout ce qu’un internaute a réalisé au cours de sa navigation. Par ailleurs, le procédé de chiffrement utilisé par ProtonVPN est de qualité militaire en employant une norme considérée comme la plus avancée au monde (et qui se nomme AES 256 bits à titre indicatif pour les férus de sécurité informatique).  

Du côté des inconvénients, ProtonVPN ne brille pas par le nombre de serveurs protégés dont la société suisse dispose, ce qui aura comme conséquence de ralentir fortement votre accès aux pages Internet. Il convient de préciser que la vitesse de connexion à un serveur VPN est l’un des paramètres les plus importants à prendre en compte pour l’utilisation de ce type de logiciel. Cette rapidité de navigation en ligne dépend en grande partie du nombre des serveurs auquel vous avez accès.

Pour faire simple : plus ils sont nombreux et bien répartis dans le monde, plus votre navigation Internet sera fluide en réduisant les temps de latence durant celle-ci. Et c’est dans ce domaine précis, avec un nombre restreint de serveurs informatiques que ProtonVPN fait preuve de faiblesse, en affichant des vitesses de connexion bien décevantes.

Par ailleurs, la version gratuite du logiciel n’offre qu’une seule connexion possible par abonnement, celle qui a été certifiée avec votre adresse de courriel. À vous de choisir judicieusement l’appareil sur lequel vous allez l’installer. Le programme ne fonctionne pas pour visionner des programmes de télé en ligne, notamment ceux diffusés par Netflix. Enfin, certains pays comme la Chine, la Russie ou encore la Turquie bloquent l’installation en ligne de ce VPN et son utilisation est un délit pénal, au regard de la loi et selon les autorités de régulation des télécoms dans ces pays.

Gratuit ou payant, choisissez votre VPN en fonction de vos usages 

Signalons que les offres premium, donc payantes, de proton VPN ajoutent au dispositif gratuit de multiples fonctionnalités. Elles sont, certes, très performantes, mais excessivement chères, ce qui exclut de facto un grand nombre d’utilisateurs. Comparativement, les VPN de la concurrence affichent à prix moindre des services bien supérieurs inclus par défaut dans leurs formules qui débloqueront n’importe quelles plates-formes et contenus Web inaccessibles, quel que soit le pays dans lequel vous résidez.

Ces VPN par abonnement comme ExpressVPN, CyberGhot ou encore NordVPN ont été conçus pour un usage intensif de l’Internet avec des vitesses de connexion optimales. Tous ces logiciels proposent, par ailleurs, le test gratuit de leurs solutions payantes pendant trente jours minimum.

source:France24

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