Maître Valentin Akayezu

The 1961 Vienna Convention on International Relations acknowledges the critical role played by diplomatic missions in protecting the interests of their accrediting state and its nationals in the host country. However, this protection must be carried out within the confines of international law.

As per Article 3 of the Convention, diplomatic missions have the right to be informed of the situation and developments in the host country through legal means. The Convention recognizes the full freedom of diplomatic missions in the exercise of their functions, but this freedom is dependent on adherence to international law and the use of legal means to obtain information on the situation, developments, and events in the host country. Let us remember that the legitimacy of diplomatic missions hinges on their adherence to international law, and their just and legal means of acquiring information.

Diplomatic immunity is not an excuse for misbehaviour. Diplomats are still obligated to follow the laws of the host country. In other words, they must address difficult issues in international relations directly, taking local customs into account for maximum impact. As representatives of their governments, it’s important for diplomats to maintain respectful and positive relationships with their host countries, and this includes respecting local laws and customs. Diplomatic immunity should never be viewed as a license to behave inappropriately or irresponsibly.

However, reality shows that there are situations where diplomatic missions go beyond the bounds of their authorized duties as defined by international customary practice and take other activities that are against international legal system, as demonstrated by the case of Jamal Ahmad Khashoggi, which has incited a great torrent of indignation in the Western diplomatic community. Recall that the Saudi journalist was assassinated at the Saudi embassy in Istanbul, Turkey, after being subjected to torture at the command of the Riyadh authorities. Around the so-called liberal world, reactions against this heinous act have been overwhelming.

Rwandan Embassy in Paris,France

Under the guise of fighting against genocide ideology and utilizing the genocide narrative as a tool to silence critics of its autocratic excesses, the Rwandan government has mandated all of its diplomatic representations abroad to guarantee that no individual, foreign or Rwandan, is allowed to continue living in freedom whenever they dare to draw attention to the serious wrongdoings committed by the totalitarian Paul Kagame and the RPF as the Party-State in Rwanda.

The propaganda apparatus in Rwanda employs a methodical procedure to generate a roster of individuals and associations that are portrayed as threats to the survival of the Rwandan people. Subsequently, these demonization lists must be approved by the nation’s authorities, including specific public commissions and the parliament. Lastly, the goal of Rwandan embassies is to keep an eye on and interfere with the daily activities of people who are considered Rwanda’s opponents and enemies. This methodical strategy is an obvious illustration of how propaganda is employed to influence and manipulate international public opinion. In addition to endangering individual freedom, the Rwandan propaganda machine also poses a threat to the stability and unity of the country.

The Rwandan ambassador to the Netherlands, Olivier Patrick Nduhungirehe

On the list of deniers of the genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda, published by the former commission in charge of the fight against genocide, commonly known as the CNLG we find the name of Judge Theodor Melon, a survivor of the Shoah, a renowned and respectable judge on an international scale, particularly in Israel, due to his contributions to his country’s public and judicial administration. His only transgression was to have pursued his career as an independent judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, a judge who could never be swayed.

Judge Theodor Melon

The Rwandan ambassador to the Netherlands, Olivier Patrick Nduhungirehe recently issued a lengthy statement on his X social media account, accusing the International Women’s Network for Peace and Democracy (RIFDP) of being made up of women who are both genocide apologists and perpetrators. The diplomat made no mention of the legal procedures against the network in Rwanda or other countries. He also noted that the Rwandan government is embarrassed by the list of persons honoured by the RIFDP. According to him, all these individuals are foreigners with anti-Rwanda beliefs. He also put that it is embarrassing that a Belgian minister of education from the Walloon Federation attended the award ceremony on March 16, 2024.

It’s crucial to highlight that the diplomat Olivier Patrick Nduhungirehe employed pseudonyms (Ndoli Gitare on his X account and Ernest Mudage on Facebook) to compile a list of Rwandans who oppose President Kagame’s regime, advocating for their arrest.

Upon the arrest of someone from the list, Nduhungirehe ticks off and divulge the event on his accounts using false identities. It’s worth noting that several journalists such as Nsengimana Theoneste and Cyuma Hassan Niyonsenga, as well as YouTubers like Yvonne Iryamugwiza, Abdul-Rachid Hakuzimana, and Aimable Karasira currently detained and undergoing trials that fail to meet international fair trial standards, are found on Nduhungirehe’s list. Particularly alarming is Nduhungirehe’s expressed satisfaction at the death of the well-known journalist John Williams Ntwali: after a questionable trial, new calls for an independent enquiry (

John Williams Ntwali

Yvonne Iryamugwiza

Nsengimana Theoneste

Cyuma Hassan Dieudonné

Aimable Karasira

Abdul-Rachid Hakuzimana

In their strategy aimed at undermining foreign dignitaries who seek to understand and support Rwandans advocating for equitable and inclusive political change, Rwandan authorities instruct their embassies to employ genocide denial tactics. This ensures that Rwandan communities critical of the dictator Paul Kagame’s regime are stigmatized, and foreigners potentially supportive of their cause are deterred from engaging with them.

Through this “don’t cross them” approach, Kigali seeks to instil fear in foreigners who interact with Rwandans outside the regime’s control, conveying a message that they should refrain from meddling in Rwandan affairs and avoid associating with supposed “genocidaires.” Consequently, the legitimate aspirations of Rwandans for fair justice, democratic governance, and the liberalization of political, social, and economic life remain unheard on the international stage, suppressed by a terror apparatus masquerading as a duty to safeguard the memory of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsis.

The transformation of Rwandan diplomatic missions into terror factories was also revealed in the assassination of Colonel Patrick Karegeya and the assassination attempt of General Kayumba Nyamwasa in South Africa. Senior Rwandan officials issued statements revealing that there was no shame in this death (statement by President Paul Kagame).

Louise Mushikiwabo, then Minister of Foreign Affairs, tweeted: “The important thing is not how you start, but how you finish. This man was a self-proclaimed enemy of my government and my country, do you expect pity?”

Defence Minister James Kabarebe said, “When you choose to be a dog, you die like a dog”

Read also: Rwandans Charged With Murder of Exiled Critic | Human Rights Watch (

The South African authorities acted promptly in establishing a connection between the assassination and the Rwandan Embassy in Pretoria. As a consequence, they took action to revoke the diplomatic status of three officials of the Rwandan Embassy. According to the South African government South Africa links Rwanda diplomats to attacks – BBC News, the expelled officials breached their diplomatic status by engaging in “illegal activities.”

To underscore that the Rwandan diplomatic mission in South Africa functions beyond the limits of the Vienna Convention of 1961, the late Karegeya’s nephew has urged the closure of the embassy, stating that it operates as an operations center that plans missions to harm innocent civilians, rather than being a traditional embassy South Africa, Rwanda expel diplomats over attack on dissident Rwandan general | Reuters.

Colonel Patrick Karegeya

General Kayumba Nyamwasa

Read also:In Mozambique Theogene-Turatsinze-2012-and-Ntamuhanga-Cassien-2021_the-most-high-profile-victims-of-Paul-Kagames-regime-in-Mozambique.pdf (

Theogene Turatsinze, a Rwandan banker privy to significant financial secrets regarding the Kagame regime’s clandestine activities, was assassinated in 2012. Ntamuhanga Cassien, an independent Rwandan journalist convicted by the Kigali courts but who managed to escape to Mozambique, was kidnapped and his fate remains unknown.

Theogene Turatsinze

Ntamuhanga Cassien

Rwandan embassies are implicated in both cases of these grave crimes. Some allege that Col. Faustin Tinka, who served as a military attaché at the Rwandan Embassy in Tanzania, orchestrated the murder of Theogene Turatsinze in Maputo, as there was no Rwandan embassy in Mozambique at the time. Regarding the abduction of Cassien Ntamuhanga, Rwandan Ambassador to Mozambique, Mr. Nikobisanzwe Jean Claude, is believed to have been the mastermind. Nikobisanzwe is also one of the three Rwandan diplomats who were expelled from South Africa due to their involvement in illicit activities. Subsequently, Ambassador Nikobisanzwe was reassigned to Mozambique. Since his arrival in the country, there have been targeted killings of Rwandan businessmen who refused to pledge loyalty to the Kigali regime. Among the victims is Revocat Karemangingo, former president of the Association of Rwandan Refugees in Mozambique, and more recently, his younger brother Rutayisire.

Revocat Karemangingo

The assassination of Seth Sendashonga in 1998, a former Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) minister who had spoken out against the rising number of killings involving the RPF armed forces, occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. Amnesty International reported that Kenyan authorities suspected a Rwandan diplomatic agent of playing a pivotal role in the assassination killings (

Seth Sendashonga

In 2022, CitizenLab, an American NGO, exposed the Rwandan Embassy in the United States of America for their unethical behavior. The embassy infiltrated the family of Mr. Paul Rusesabagina, the hero of the Hotel des Milles Collines, and had gone so far as to secretly listen to the conversations of their child at school.

Mr. Paul Rusesabagina

With mounting concerns over the unlawful actions of Rwanda’s diplomatic missions, it is imperative for the receiving countries to rise up for the rightness and condemn all forms of unethical behaviour, regardless of who is responsible.

Rwandan diplomatic personnel have been engaging in uncontrolled actions that violate international law. In particular, they have been impeding the right to freedom of expression, association, movement, and citizenship of origin. These rights are not only enshrined in international legal texts but are also critical components of liberal democracy and deeply ingrained in the customary mentalities of the populations of the host states where Rwandan diplomats operate. By attacking these rights and freedoms, Rwandan embassies are directly undermining the international respectability of human rights.

What’s more concerning is the fact that they have been targeting private rights and spreading baseless rumours about the morality and integrity of both Rwandans and foreigners who support them. Indeed, the violation of one’s privacy is a heinous act that cannot be tolerated. The right to privacy is of utmost importance, and it becomes even more crucial when foreign diplomatic personnel violate it.

As responsible Rwandan diplomatic missions’ host States, it is their duty to ensure that people’s privacy is safeguarded against any such infringement. Such actions are a direct affront to the values that Western democracies hold dear and must be stopped.


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