Japon : Fumio Kishida élu à la tête du parti au pouvoir et prochain Premier ministre

L'ancien ministre des Affaires étrangères Fumio Kishida a été désigné chef du Parti démocratique libéral et est assuré de devenir Premier ministre japonais. Ici, lors d'un débat à Tokyo, le 20 septembre 2021.
L’ancien ministre des Affaires étrangères Fumio Kishida a été désigné chef du Parti démocratique libéral et est assuré de devenir Premier ministre japonais. Ici, lors d’un débat à Tokyo, le 20 septembre 2021. © Philip Fong, Reuters

Au pouvoir au Japon, le Parti libéral-démocrate a désigné en interne, mercredi, son nouveau dirigeant : Fumio Kishida. L’ancien ministre des Affaires étrangères est assuré de devenir le prochain Premier ministre lors d’un vote au Parlement le 4 octobre.PUBLICITÉ

Le Parti libéral-démocrate (PLD, droite conservatrice), parti au pouvoir au Japon depuis 1955, a choisi son nouveau dirigeant, mercredi 29 septembre, lors d’une élection interne. Après un vote en deux tours, Fumio Kishida, ancien ministre des Affaires étrangères de 2012 à 2017, a été élu à une large majorité et est pratiquement assuré de prendre la tête du pays en tant que Premier ministre, du fait de la majorité absolue dont dispose le PLD à la chambre basse du Parlement.

Considéré comme un modéré, l’homme de 64 ans a obtenu 257 voix lors du second tour d’un scrutin interne au PLD (droite conservatrice), contre 170 voix pour Tara Kono, 58 ans, qui est l’une des figures politiques les plus connues de l’archipel : il incarne la campagne de vaccination anti-Covid-19 au Japon.

Le sortant Yoshihide Suga, impopulaire dans l’opinion après un an au poste suprême, a décidé de ne pas se présenter à ce scrutin du PLD, qui domine la vie politique japonaise depuis 1955.

Pour désigner officiellement le Premier ministre, un vote aura lieu le 4 octobre au Parlement, dominé par le PLD, et mènera son parti à la bataille des élections législatives devant avoir lieu d’ici à novembre et pour laquelle il part favori.ADVERTISING

Il devra désormais mener son parti à la bataille des élections législatives qui doit avoir lieu d’ici à novembre, et pour laquelle il part favori.

“Nous devons montrer au public que le PLD est ressuscité et a besoin de son soutien [pour ces élections aux deux chambres du Parlement]”, a-t-il déclaré après sa victoire. “Allons à l’élection unis”, a-t-il lancé.

Fumio Kishida, ministre des Affaires étrangères de 2012 à 2017 et héritier d’une famille d’hommes politiques, avait échoué en 2020 face à Yoshihide Suga et a été le premier à déclarer sa candidature à l’élection de cette année.

Il a promis de renforcer les mesures de relance économique liées à la pandémie s’il est élu. Fumio Kishida a cherché à tirer parti du mécontentement de l’opinion publique à l’égard de la gestion de la crise sanitaire qui a fait chuter la cote de popularité du gouvernement Suga. Il a mis en avant ses qualités d’écoute et a invité les Japonais à lui faire part de leurs demandes et de leurs idées.

Deux femmes parmi les quatre principaux candidats

Mais le premier tour de cette élection interne du PLD s’est révélé extrêmement serré : le vainqueur n’a devancé Tara Kono que d’une voix, et la candidate ultra-conservatrice Sanae Takaichi, soutenue par le précédent Premier ministre Shinzo Abe, a également réalisé un bon score.

Deux femmes figuraient parmi les quatre personnalités en lice au départ, fait inhabituel dans un pays qui n’a jamais eu de femme Premier ministre et qui compte peu de personnalités politiques féminines de premier plan.

L’ultra-nationaliste Sanae Takaichi, 60 ans, est arivée troisième, et l’ancienne ministre Seiko Noda, 61 ans et connue pour ses positions féministes, en dernière position.

Fumio Kishida a en revanche lourdement dominé le second tour, où les voix des parlementaires du PLD avaient nettement plus de poids que celles des membres de base du parti, obtenant 257 voix, contre 170 pour Tara Kono, pourtant la figure préférée du grand public, selon les sondages.

Le “Monsieur vaccination”, ancien ministre de la Défense et des Affaires étrangères, était considéré depuis des années comme un candidat probable au poste suprême. Actif sur les réseaux sociaux, il privilégiait un style de communication direct en rupture avec l’approche prudente souvent privilégiée par les politiciens japonais. Mais il a également été critiqué pour sa tendance à bloquer les voix trop critiques via son compte Twitter (où il a plus de 2 millions d’abonnés) et pour avoir intimidé des fonctionnaires, selon des tabloïds.

“Prouver qu’il a changé”

“Clairement, la perspective d’une victoire de Tara Kono a effrayé au sein du PLD”, a déclaré à l’AFP Brad Glosserman, expert de la politique japonaise et professeur à l’université Tama.

“Certains sont vraiment inquiets de certaines de ses positions à l’égard de la Chine et du fait qu’il est prêt à aller loin pour assurer son indépendance vis-à-vis des États-Unis”, a-t-il ajouté.

Fumio Kishida “doit maintenant prouver qu’il n’est plus le même” qui a perdu l’an dernier, selon Brad Glosserman. Mais “le simple fait qu’il doit prouver (qu’il a changé, NDLR) est déjà un signe peu encourageant”.

Le futur Premier ministre devra faire face à une pléthore de défis, de la conduite d’une reprise économique post-pandémique aux menaces que représentent la Corée du Nord et la Chine. Il ne devrait toutefois pas modifier radicalement la politique étrangère, économique ou militaire du Japon.

Fumio Kishida a notamment la volonté de renforcer les liens sécuritaires avec les États-Unis au sein du “Quad”, de préserver les liens économiques vitaux avec la Chine et d’organiser régulièrement des sommets diplomatiques.

Comme son rival, il a également dénoncé ce qu’il considère comme l’échec des “Abenomics”, les mesures fiscales et monétaires destinées à soutenir l’économie et les ménages mises en place par Shinzo Abe, sans toutefois indiquer ce qu’il envisageait de faire.

Avec AFP

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