Menacé par la comète TikTok, Facebook peine à séduire chez les jeunes

Pour la première fois de son histoire, le leader incontesté des réseaux sociaux, Facebook, du groupe Meta, a perdu près d’un million d’utilisateurs quotidiens actifs sur le dernier trimestre. Des chiffres qui témoignent des difficultés du réseau social à séduire les jeunes de 15-25 ans, qui lui préfèrent TikTok.

Boudé par les plus jeunes qui lui préfèrent TikTok, le géant des réseaux sociaux Facebook apparaît en perte de vitesse. Les résultats décevants du groupe Meta illustrent ses difficultés à séduire la génération des 15-25 ans, malgré la popularité de son autre application Instagram.

Baisse des utilisateurs

Le leader incontesté des réseaux sociaux, pour la première fois de son histoire, a perdu près d’un million d’utilisateurs quotidiens actifs sur le dernier trimestre, avec 1,929 milliard d’abonnés fin 2021.

Facebook avait jusqu’ici globalement réussi à compenser des baisses d’abonnés en Amérique du Nord par de nouvelles inscriptions ailleurs dans le monde, constate Vincent Reynaud-Lacroze, directeur général de l’agence de communication We Are Social.

« On observe un point d’inflexion du réseau, à un moment où le groupe a investi des milliards et espère se réinventer avec le métavers », explique-t-il, une innovation dont Meta n’a pas encore tiré de revenus.

Son fondateur et patron, Mark Zuckerberg, l’a lui-même reconnu : « les gens ont beaucoup d’options sur la manière de passer leur temps, et des applis comme TikTok grandissent très vite ».

Car si Facebook reste le réseau social le plus utilisé au monde, sa croissance n’a rien de comparable avec l’ascension fulgurante de son concurrent chinois, principalement chez les jeunes.

Selon le rapport 2022 de l’agence We Are Social, TikTok a gagné 650 000 nouveaux utilisateurs chaque jour au dernier trimestre 2021 – 8 chaque seconde – avec un nombre d’utilisateurs actifs en croissance de 45 %.

Le chiffre d’affaires de sa maison mère, Bytedance, a d’ailleurs augmenté de 70 % en un an, atteignant les 58 milliards de dollars.

Réseau de « boomer »

« Ce changement s’explique par l’incapacité de Facebook à recruter dans la « Gen Z », la génération des 15-25 ans », souligne Vincent Reynaud-Lacroze. « C’est un peu devenu la plateforme des boomers », plaisante-t-il en référence à la moyenne d’âge plus élevée des utilisateurs Facebook.

« Quand les parents arrivent sur un réseau social, les jeunes fuient sur un autre, là où ils peuvent avoir leur propre espace », abonde Flavilla Fongang, fondatrice de l’agence spécialisée dans la communication de marque 3 Colours Rule à Londres.

Les jeunes, de plus, ont vite adopté les codes et les fonctionnalités mises à disposition par TikTok, qui leur permettent d’exprimer leur créativité à travers des chorégraphies ou des morceaux de musique, ajoute-t-elle.

Ils plébiscitent également la dimension « ouverte » du réseau.

« Vous pouvez créer un contenu viral même si vous avez seulement 10 ou 12 abonnés […] et avoir, comme sur Twitch, des interactions avec de parfaits inconnus », détaille Flavilla Fongang.

D’abord repaire des adolescents, TikTok cartonne aussi de plus en plus chez les jeunes adultes. « L’application a un peu le même cycle de vie qu’a eu Facebook : il y a eu un effet d’aubaine pendant le confinement, qui lui a permis de commencer à recruter dans un public plus âgé », explique Vincent Reynaud-Lacroze.

L’atout Instagram

Pour ne pas perdre trop de vitesse, Meta mise sur Instagram, réseau très populaire sans avoir la dynamique d’innovation de l’application chinoise.

Les performances de cette filiale, qui a gagné 250 millions d’utilisateurs actifs en 2021 (1,4 milliard au total), permettent de relativiser la mauvaise performance du groupe, même si l’âge de son public est plus hétérogène, comme celui de WhatsApp.

L’ajout de la fonction « Reels », pour créer de courtes vidéos inspirées des formats de TikTok, a séduit ses utilisateurs sans atteindre le niveau de rémunération que génèrent ses formats classiques.

Instagram va aussi donner la possibilité à des « influenceurs » de proposer des abonnements payants à leurs fans, un outil conçu pour attirer et fidéliser les créateurs de contenu tentés par la bascule sur YouTube ou TikTok.

Si ce premier frémissement a fait plonger les actions du géant américain de 24 % jeudi à Wall Street, Facebook reste encore le réseau social dominant à l’international. « Il a perdu un million d’utilisateurs sur deux milliards », nuance Vincent Reynaud-Lacroze.

« On se demande si le groupe, avec son changement de nom à l’automne, n’avait pas anticipé cette évolution, et se prépare déjà pour le coup d’après : un réseau social dans le métavers, par exemple », imagine-t-il.

source:Ouest-France

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