France-Rwanda: La justice française clôt le dossier de l’attentat déclencheur du génocide de 1994 au Rwanda

La Cour de cassation a définitivement confirmé ce mardi la décision d’abandonner l’enquête et les poursuites dans le dossier de l’attentat qui a déclenché le génocide de 1994 au Rwanda.

C’est l’événement déclencheur du génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda. Le 6 avril 1994, l’avion Falcon qui transporte le président rwandais est touché par deux missiles alors qu’il s’apprête à atterrir à Kigali. Il n’y a aucun survivant. Avec la mort de Juvénal Habyarimana s’envolent aussi les espoirs de paix et l’effroyable mécanique du génocide s’enclenche.

Saisie en 1998 par les familles des trois membres d’équipage français également tués dans cet attentat, la justice française a enquêté et tâtonné, jusqu’à ce que la Cour de cassation mette fin à la procédure ce mardi en confirmant le non-lieu prononcé en 2018. La plus haute juridiction française ne conclut pas sur le fond. Elle se contente de valider le processus judiciaire qui a mené les juges d’instructions à décider d’un non-lieu « en l’absence d’éléments matériels indiscutables ».

Dans un premier temps, les enquêteurs français avaient privilégié la thèse d’une attaque des rebelles tutsis menée par Paul Kagame. L’affaire a longtemps empoisonné les relations entre Paris et Kigali, où l’ancien rebelle est au pouvoir depuis plus de 20 ans. L’enquête a ensuite suivi la piste d’extrémistes hutus, soucieux de se débarrasser d’un président trop modéré à leurs yeux.

Une enquête, ont souligné les juges, qui s’est déroulée dans un climat délétère, plusieurs témoins ont disparu ou ont été assassinés. 

Faute de pouvoir rassembler des preuves permettant d’étayer l’une ou l’autre hypothèse, les poursuites contre neuf membres ou anciens membres de l’entourage de Paul Kagame ont été levées. La décision de la Cour de Cassation met donc un point final aux investigations.

Un soldat du Front patriotique rwandais inspecte le site sur lequel s’est crashé l’avion du président rwandais, Juvénal Habyarimana, quelques jours plus tôt. Photo prise le 26 mai 1994. Getty/Scott Peterson


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