Yang Huiyan : la femme la plus riche d’Asie qui a perdu la moitié de sa fortune en un an

Ange Eric Hatangimana

Yannick Izabayo

Yang Huiyan
Légende image,Yang Huiyan (au milieu) est la femme la plus riche d’Asia.

Depuis des années, sa fortune fait l’objet de gros titres, de commentaires et de réflexions au-delà de la Chine.

Yang Huiyan, âgée de 41 ans seulement, est non seulement la femme la plus riche de Chine, mais aussi la plus riche d’Asie.

Depuis qu’elle a hérité d’un empire immobilier de son père, il y a plus de dix ans, sa fortune n’a cessé de croître. Mais les choses ont changé en 2022 : l’année dernière, elle a subi une véritable débâcle.

Selon les calculs du Bloomberg Billionaires Index, M. Yang a vu sa valeur nette chuter de plus de 52 % l’année dernière.

En 2021, Bloomberg a estimé la fortune de la femme d’affaires à environ 33,9 milliards de dollars US, chiffre qui est tombé à environ 16,1 milliards de dollars US dans les estimations de juillet dernier.

Les analystes économiques y ont vu non seulement un signe peu flatteur de l’état du marché immobilier chinois, mais aussi un avertissement majeur sur l’avenir de la deuxième plus grande économie du monde.

Le secteur immobilier du pays est en grande difficulté avec la chute des prix des logements, la baisse de la demande des acheteurs et une crise de défaut de paiement de la dette qui touche certains grands promoteurs depuis 2020.

La situation a atteint un tel point que même certaines banques sont à court d’argent, ce qui a déclenché des manifestations dans certaines villes du pays asiatique.

Et si Yang reste la femme la plus riche d’Asie, sa position a commencé à vaciller.

Selon Bloomberg, elle est suivie par l’entrepreneur en fibres chimiques Fan Hongwei, qui possède également une valeur nette d’environ 16 milliards de dollars.

Mais qui est Yang Huiyan et comment a-t-elle réalisé l’une des plus grandes fortunes du monde ?

L’héritière

Née en 1981 à Shuntak, un district de la ville de Foshan, dans la province de Canton, au sud de la Chine, Yang est la fille de l’un des hommes les plus riches de Chine : Yang Guoqiang.

Élevée dans l’une des familles les plus puissantes de Chine, elle a reçu une excellente éducation et a été envoyée aux États-Unis pendant sa jeunesse. Elle a obtenu en 2003 une licence en arts et sciences de l’université d’État de l’Ohio.

Après son retour en Chine, elle a hérité de son père, en 2007, une participation majoritaire dans Country Garden Holdings, le plus grand promoteur immobilier de Chine en termes de chiffre d’affaires.

Fondée en 1992 à Guangzhou, Country Garden Holdings est devenue un succès après son introduction en bourse à Hong Kong et a levé environ 1,6 milliard de dollars, soit à peu près autant que Google après son introduction en bourse aux États-Unis en 2004.

Country Garden Holdings est le plus grand promoteur immobilier de Chine en termes de ventes.
Légende image,Country Garden Holdings est le plus grand promoteur immobilier de Chine en termes de ventes.

Bien qu’elle soit connue pour ne pas se faire remarquer et mener une vie discrète, Mme Yang est au centre de nombreux gros titres, tant en Chine qu’à l’étranger.

L’un des cas les plus médiatisés s’est produit en 2018, lorsque des documents juridiques ayant fait l’objet d’une fuite, connus sous le nom de “Cyprus papers”, ont montré qu’elle avait obtenu la nationalité chypriote en 2018, alors que la Chine ne reconnaît pas la double nationalité.

Les problèmes

Les spécialistes du marché chinois ont décrit Yang comme une femme créative ayant le sens des affaires.

En juin de l’année dernière, l’International Hospitality Institute l’a reconnue dans son classement des personnes les plus puissantes de l’industrie hôtelière mondiale.

Cependant, son entreprise montrait déjà des signes de faiblesse.

La situation du marché immobilier du pays s’est compliquée depuis 2020, non seulement à cause de la pandémie de coronavirus, mais aussi parce que les autorités chinoises ont tenté de freiner l’endettement excessif du secteur immobilier.

La chine
Légende image,La Chine connaît une crise du marché de l’immobilier

Les grandes entreprises de construction se sont ainsi retrouvées exposées à une bataille pour effectuer leurs paiements et ont été contraintes de renégocier avec leurs créanciers.

La crise s’est aggravée lorsqu’Evergrande, la société immobilière la plus endettée de Chine, a fait défaut sur ses obligations en dollars fin 2021 après des mois de problèmes de liquidités.

Par la suite, et jusqu’à présent cette année, plusieurs autres grands promoteurs, dont Kaisa et Shimao Group, ont également demandé la protection de leurs créanciers.

La crise s’est aggravée ces dernières semaines après qu’une “grève des acheteurs” a été signalée, après que des milliers de personnes ont cessé de payer leurs prêts hypothécaires à l’avance en raison des retards dans les mises en chantier.

En conséquence, Country Garden, qui est resté à flot au début de la pandémie, est également confronté à des problèmes de liquidités, au point qu’en juillet dernier, il a dû vendre des actions avec une décote de près de 13 % pour lever des fonds.

Et la situation à long terme ne semble pas prometteuse pour Yang, sa fortune et le cabinet qu’il représente.

Dans un rapport publié en juillet dernier, l’agence de notation S&P a estimé que les ventes de biens immobiliers en Chine pourraient chuter d’un tiers cette année en raison de la grève des hypothèques.

De son côté, Capital Economics, un cabinet de recherche économique indépendant basé à Londres, a prédit que “sans ventes, de nombreux autres promoteurs s’effondreront, ce qui constitue une menace financière et économique” pour la Chine.

BBC

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