Guerre Ukraine ‘ Russie : Quels équipements militaires le monde donne-t-il à l’Ukraine ?

Ange Eric Hatangimana

Rémy RUGIRA

Depuis le début de la guerre en Ukraine, Kiev a reçu une vaste gamme d’équipements militaires de plus de 30 pays.

Les États-Unis ont annoncé cette semaine un nouveau soutien d’une valeur de 2,5 milliards de dollars (1 billion 510 milliards 586 millions 100 mille FCFA), comprenant des véhicules blindés, mais pas de chars de combat principaux, comme l’a demandé Kiev.

Le Royaume-Uni a déclaré qu’il enverrait des chars Challenger 2 pour contribuer à l’effort de guerre de l’Ukraine, et Berlin fait face à des appels pour autoriser l’envoi de chars Leopard 2 de fabrication allemande.

Les besoins de l’Ukraine ont considérablement évolué au fil de la guerre.

Chars d’assaut

Le président ukrainien Volodomyr Zelensky déclare que ses forces ont besoin de toute urgence de chars de combat occidentaux pour défendre le territoire contre les attaques russes et pour repousser les troupes russes hors des zones occupées.

Certains responsables occidentaux pensent également que les forces russes sont actuellement en position de faiblesse et qu’il existe une fenêtre d’opportunité dans laquelle des chars plus avancés pourraient aider l’Ukraine à progresser.

Le Royaume-Uni a accepté de fournir 14 chars Challenger 2 à l’Ukraine.

Le Challenger 2 est le principal char de combat de l’armée britannique.

Graphique du char Challenger 2

Le Challenger 2 a été construit dans les années 1990, mais il est nettement plus avancé que les autres chars dont disposent les forces armées ukrainiennes.

L’Ukraine utilisait des chars T-72 conçus par le Pacte de Varsovie avant l’invasion, et depuis février 2022, elle a reçu plus de 200 T-72 de la Pologne, de la République tchèque et d’un petit nombre d’autres pays.

Char T-72M1

Dans les mois qui ont suivi l’invasion russe, les nations occidentales ont tenu à proposer à l’Ukraine des armes conformes aux normes du Pacte de Varsovie plutôt qu’à celles de l’OTAN, car les forces armées ukrainiennes disposaient d’une réserve de personnel qualifié, de pièces de rechange et de capacités de maintenance.

Le passage aux chars standard de l’OTAN aurait nécessité un soutien logistique dont l’Ukraine ne disposait pas.

Maintenant, l’Ukraine veut des chars Leopard 2 allemands, utilisés par un certain nombre de pays européens.

L’Allemagne a fait l’objet d’une intense pression internationale pour qu’elle fasse don de ses Leopard 2, mais elle ne l’a pas fait et, surtout, elle n’a pas autorisé les autres pays disposant de Leopard 2 à les transmettre à l’Ukraine.

Le Leopard 2 est plus facile à entretenir et nécessite moins de carburant que certaines alternatives occidentales.

Char d'assaut Leopard 2

Selon certains rapports, l’Allemagne ne modifiera pas sa position sur les Leopard 2 à moins que les États-Unis n’envoient leurs propres chars de combat principal Abrams.

Les États-Unis sont de loin le plus grand donateur d’aide militaire à l’Ukraine dans son ensemble.

Les responsables américains affirment qu’ils ne sont pas prêts à le faire. “Le char Abrams est une pièce d’équipement très compliquée. Il est cher. Il est difficile de s’entraîner dessus. Il a un moteur à réaction”, selon le principal conseiller du Pentagone en matière de sécurité, Colin Kahl.

Char M1 Abrahams

Véhicules de combat

Les professionnels de l’armée soulignent que le succès sur le champ de bataille nécessite une vaste gamme d’équipements, déployés de manière coordonnée, avec le soutien logistique nécessaire en place.

Parmi les nombreux véhicules donnés à l’Ukraine figure le véhicule blindé de combat Stryker.

Jeudi, les États-Unis ont annoncé qu’ils envoyaient 90 Stryker.

Véhicule de combat Stryker.

Parmi les autres véhicules donnés par les États-Unis cette semaine figurent 59 autres véhicules de combat d’infanterie Bradley. Ils ont été largement utilisés par les forces américaines en Irak.

Le char de marque Bradley

Défenses aériennes

Le 21 décembre, les États-Unis ont annoncé qu’ils envoyaient le système de missiles Patriot à l’Ukraine.

Jeudi, l’Allemagne et les Pays-Bas ont également annoncé qu’ils faisaient don de lanceurs et de missiles Patriot.

Ce système hautement sophistiqué a une portée pouvant atteindre 100 km, selon le type de missile utilisé, et nécessite une formation spécialisée pour les soldats ukrainiens, qui sera probablement dispensée sur une base de l’armée américaine en Allemagne.

Mais le système est coûteux à exploiter – un missile Patriot coûte environ 3 millions de dollars (1 814 007 300 FCFA).

Fonctionnement du missile Patriot.

Depuis le début du conflit, l’Ukraine utilise des systèmes sol-air S-300 de l’ère soviétique contre les attaques russes.

Avant le début du conflit en février, l’Ukraine disposait d’environ 250 S-300 et des efforts ont été déployés pour les réapprovisionner avec des systèmes similaires stockés dans d’autres anciens pays soviétiques, dont certains en provenance de Slovaquie.

S-300 Système de défense.

Les États-Unis ont également fourni des Nasams (National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System) à l’Ukraine. Les premiers Nasams sont arrivés en Ukraine en novembre.

En outre, le Royaume-Uni a fourni plusieurs systèmes de défense aérienne, dont le Starstreak, conçu pour abattre à courte distance les avions volant à basse altitude.

Graphic showing details of the Star Streak system.

L’Allemagne a également fourni des systèmes de défense aérienne, notamment les systèmes de défense aérienne IRIS-T qui peuvent frapper des missiles en approche à une altitude allant jusqu’à 20 km.

Roquettes à longue portée

Parmi les lance-roquettes à longue portée envoyés à l’Ukraine par les États-Unis figurent les M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System ou Himars. Plusieurs pays européens ont également envoyé des systèmes similaires.

On pense que les Himars ont joué un rôle central dans le succès de l’Ukraine à repousser les forces russes dans le sud, notamment à Kherson en novembre.

Lance-roquettes Himars

Il est important de noter que la portée de Himars, et de nombreux autres systèmes, varie en fonction des munitions utilisées, et l’on pense que les donateurs occidentaux n’ont pas fourni les munitions ayant la plus grande portée.

Les munitions que l’on pense avoir été fournies à l’Ukraine donnent au système une portée d’environ 80 km, ce qui est plus loin que le système Smerch du côté russe.

Les systèmes Himars sont également beaucoup plus précis que les systèmes russes équivalents.

Graphic comparing ranges of artillery.

Obusiers

Dans les mois qui ont suivi l’invasion et le retrait de la Russie de Kiev, la guerre s’est concentrée sur l’est du pays, où les fournitures d’artillerie à l’Ukraine étaient très demandées.

L’Australie, le Canada et les États-Unis ont été parmi les pays à envoyer des obusiers M777 avancés et des munitions à l’Ukraine.

La portée du M777 est similaire à celle de l’obusier russe Giatsint-B, et beaucoup plus longue que celle du canon remorqué russe D-30.

Graphic showing details of M777 artillery

Les armes antichars

Des milliers d’armes Nlaw, conçues pour détruire les chars d’assaut d’un seul coup, ont également été fournies à l’Ukraine.

Graphic showing details of Nlaw anti-tank weapon.

On pense que ces armes ont été particulièrement importantes pour arrêter l’avancée des forces russes sur Kiev dans les heures et les jours qui ont suivi l’invasion.

Selon Justin Bronk, du Royal United Services Institute, “Nlaw a joué un rôle absolument essentiel dans la défaite des poussées terrestres russes au début de la guerre”.

Drones

Les drones ont joué un rôle important dans le conflit jusqu’à présent, nombre d’entre eux étant utilisés pour la surveillance, le ciblage et les opérations de transport lourd.

La Turquie a vendu des drones armés Bayraktar TB2 à l’Ukraine au cours des derniers mois, tandis que le fabricant turc du système a fait don de drones à des opérations de financement par la foule pour soutenir l’Ukraine.

Le drone de fabrication turc Bayraktar.

Selon les analystes, les Bayraktar TB2 ont été extrêmement efficaces, volant à environ 7 600 m (25 000 pieds) avant de descendre pour attaquer des cibles russes avec des bombes guidées par laser.

On pense qu’ils ont détruit des hélicoptères, des navires de guerre et des systèmes de missiles.

Ils ont également été utilisés pour fournir l’emplacement exact des positions russes pour des frappes d’artillerie de précision.

Reportage supplémentaire de Tom Spencer. Graphiques de Gerry Fletcher et Sana Dionysiou.

All credits: BBC

238 thoughts on “Guerre Ukraine ‘ Russie : Quels équipements militaires le monde donne-t-il à l’Ukraine ?

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