Qui est Bola Tinubu, le nouveau président du Nigéria ?

Ange Eric Hatangimana

Yannick Izabayo

Source de cet article

  • Auteur,Nduka Orjinmo
  • Role,BBC News
  • Lieu:Abuja
  • 1 mars 2023

Bola Tinubu, 70 ans, a été déclaré vainqueur de l’élection la plus compétitive du Nigeria depuis la fin du régime militaire en 1999.

Largement reconnu pour avoir remodelé le centre commercial nigérian de Lagos, M. Tinubu a éliminé un parti d’opposition divisé et un candidat tiers soutenu par la jeunesse et devrait remplacer le président Muhammadu Buhari en mai, à moins que les allégations de manipulation de l’opposition ne conduisent à une nouvelle course.

Autrefois contraint à l’exil par le dirigeant militaire Sani Abacha, M. Tinubu connaît la valeur de la liberté et la porte comme un insigne sur son chapeau caractéristique – une manille brisée qui ressemble à un chiffre huit horizontal.

Comptable de formation, ce sont les activités du groupe pro-démocratique National Democratic Coalition (Nadeco), dont il était membre, qui l’ont mis dans le collimateur d’Abacha.

L’opposition de groupes tels que Nadeco et la mort d’Abacha en 1998 ont permis l’avènement de la démocratie au Nigéria en 1999 et, à bien des égards, M. Tinubu, ancien cadre de la compagnie pétrolière Mobil, estime avoir droit à la présidence du Nigéria.

M. Tinubu, connu sous le nom de “Jagaban” par ses partisans, cherchera désormais à unifier un pays qui se replie sur des lignes régionales et des blocs religieux, comme le montrent les résultats des élections.

Mais ce n’est pas un travail qui le dérange. Il a souligné son passage en tant que gouverneur de l’État de Lagos entre 1999 et 2007 pour vendre sa candidature aux Nigérians.

Sous son mandat, Lagos a augmenté massivement ses revenus grâce à d’énormes investissements étrangers, tandis qu’un programme de transport public prévoyant la création de nouvelles voies pour les bus rapides a permis de réduire les fameux embouteillages auxquels sont confrontés quotidiennement les banlieusards.

Mais la ville d’environ 25 millions d’habitants n’a pas été à la hauteur de sa réputation de mégalopole, malgré ses prétentions à la redresser.

Les infrastructures publiques sont en grande partie dans un état de délabrement – les équipements de base tels que l’eau et les logements publics sont décrépis, tandis qu’un projet de train léger lancé sous son règne n’a pas été achevé près de 20 ans plus tard malgré les richesses de l’État.

Il a également été accusé de garder la main sur les finances de l’État, bien qu’il ait quitté ses fonctions en 2007.

Tous les gouverneurs qui lui ont succédé ont été des protégés suivant une “grande feuille de route”, tandis que celui qui a osé trouver sa propre voie a été rapidement mis au pas, avec l’aide des puissants membres du syndicat des transports.

M. Tinubu fait également l’objet d’allégations de corruption, qu’il nie.

Il y a deux ans, Dapo Apara, un comptable d’Alpha-beta, une entreprise dans laquelle M. Tinubu détiendrait des parts par l’intermédiaire d’un ami, l’a accusé d’utiliser cette entreprise pour blanchir de l’argent, frauder le fisc et se livrer à d’autres pratiques de corruption.

M. Tinubu a été poursuivi en justice bien que lui-même et Alpha-beta aient nié les allégations, mais toutes les parties ont décidé de régler à l’amiable en juin dernier.

De telles allégations, y compris le fait d’avoir été confronté à deux reprises au Tribunal du code de conduite du Nigeria (CCT) pour des allégations de violation du code des fonctionnaires publics – où il a été blanchi – font dire aux opposants que M. Tinubu n’est pas l’homme de la situation dans un pays où la corruption est élevée.

Lors de la dernière élection, l’exposition éhontée d’un fourgon blindé utilisé par les banques pour déplacer de l’argent dans son complexe palatial dans le quartier d’Ikoyi à Lagos a alimenté les soupçons selon lesquels il était impliqué dans l’achat de votes, ce qu’il n’a pas fait grand effort pour nier.

“Si j’ai de l’argent, si je le souhaite, je le donne gratuitement aux gens, tant que ce n’est pas pour acheter des votes”, a-t-il affirmé.

Il est l’un des hommes politiques les plus riches du Nigéria, mais sa fortune suscite des interrogations.

En décembre, il a déclaré à la BBC qu’il avait hérité de biens immobiliers qu’il a ensuite investis, mais il a également indiqué par le passé qu’il était devenu “millionnaire instantanément” alors qu’il travaillait comme auditeur chez Deloitte et Touche.

Il a assuré avoir épargné 1,8 million de dollars (1 103 118 500 FCFA) provenant de ses salaires et autres indemnités, soit presque le même montant que celui trouvé sur des comptes liés à lui dans un litige avec les autorités américaines en 1993.

Dans des documents accessibles au public, le ministère américain de la Justice a affirmé qu’à partir du début de 1988, des comptes ouverts au nom de Bola Tinubu contenaient le produit de ventes d’héroïne blanche.

Kevin Moss, l’agent spécial qui a enquêté sur l’opération, a affirmé que M. Tinubu travaillait pour leur principal suspect, Adegoboyega Akande.

Alors que le tribunal a confirmé qu’il avait des raisons de croire que l’argent sur les comptes bancaires était le produit d’un trafic de drogue, M. Tinubu et les autres ont nié ces allégations, et le tribunal n’a jamais rendu d’ordonnance définitive sur l’origine de l’argent.

Au lieu de cela, M. Tinubu, qui n’a pas été personnellement inculpé pour l’argent, a conclu un compromis avec les autorités et 460 000 dollars (281 889 930 FCFA) ont été confisqués.

M. Tinubu est également confronté à des questions sur sa santé. Il a déjà publié une vidéo de huit secondes le montrant en train de faire du vélo d’appartement comme preuve de vie.

Ses opposants affirment que son âge le rattrape et citent des vidéos de diverses gaffes lors de rassemblements de campagne où il est parfois difficile de comprendre ce qu’il dit.

De nombreux Nigérians se méfient d’un autre président ayant des problèmes de santé après le décès du président Umaru Yar’Adua en 2010 et d’un président actuel qui a passé beaucoup de temps à se faire soigner à l’étranger.

Mais ses partisans affirment qu’il a l’endurance nécessaire pour le poste et qu’il ne concourt pas pour une place aux Jeux olympiques.

CRÉDIT PHOTO,AFPLégende image,

M. Tinubu (G) affirme avoir aidé le vice-président Yemi Osinbajo (C) et le président Buhari (D) à entrer en fonction.

Pendant la campagne, il y a eu une controverse sur son choix d’un colistier.

M. Tinubu, un musulman du sud, a choisi l’ancien gouverneur de l’État de Borno, Kashim Shettima, un musulman du nord, comme vice-président.

Cette décision a été considérée comme apaisant le nord à majorité musulmane du Nigeria, qui possède le plus grand bloc électoral du pays.

Cependant, elle a suscité l’ire de nombreux chrétiens qui estiment qu’elle va à l’encontre de la tradition des candidatures mixtes à la présidence.

Il a défendu son choix, affirmant avoir privilégié la compétence aux intérêts primordiaux.

Il est considéré comme le parrain politique de la région du sud-ouest et sa figure la plus influente, qui décide de la répartition du pouvoir entre ses nombreux acolytes.

En 2015, il s’est décrit comme un “chasseur de talents” qui met “des talents au pouvoir”.

Son immense influence politique a conduit à la fusion des partis d’opposition en 2013 et a fini par arracher le pouvoir au PDP, alors au pouvoir, en 2015 – une rareté au Nigéria où les titulaires ne sont pas souvent battus.

Lors des primaires de son parti, alors que les aspirations de M. Tinubu semblaient faiblir, il a rappelé aux Nigérians qu’il était en grande partie responsable de l’installation du président Muhammadu Buhari, après que l’ancien chef militaire eut échoué à plusieurs reprises à remporter la présidence.

Les associés de M. Buhari ont depuis tenté de minimiser l’influence de l’ancien gouverneur dans l’élection de 2015, mais il est peu probable que l’actuel président aurait émergé, à deux reprises, sans le soutien de M. Tinubu.

C’est pourquoi ses partisans ont considéré comme une trahison le fait que le vice-président Yemi Osinbajo, qui a travaillé avec M. Tinubu en tant que commissaire à Lagos, se soit présenté contre son ancien patron pour le ticket APC.

Après avoir remporté les élections, il devra s’attaquer à de nombreux problèmes laissés par M. Buhari – insécurité généralisée, chômage élevé, inflation croissante et pays divisé selon des critères ethniques.

Ce n’est pas un travail impossible, mais la tâche qui nous attend est ardue.

561 thoughts on “Qui est Bola Tinubu, le nouveau président du Nigéria ?

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