Kuki hariho Bibiliya z’amoko menshi?

Kuki muri iki gihe hari Bibiliya zitandukanye (versions) mu ndimi nyinshi? Ese kuba ari nyinshi bituma abantu basobanukirwa Ijambo ry’Imana? Kumenya inkomoko y’izo Bibiliya bizagufasha kuzisuzumana ubwitonzi.

Ubundi se ni nde wabanje kwandika Bibiliya kandi yayanditse ryari?

BIBILIYA Y’UMWIMERERE

Bibiliya igabanyijemo ibice bibiri. Igice cya mbere kigizwe n’ibitabo 39 birimo “amagambo yera y’Imana” (Abaroma 3:2). Imana yahumekeye abantu b’indahemuka kugira ngo bandike ibyo bitabo mu gihe k’imyaka igera ku 1.100, kuva mu mwaka wa 1513 kugeza mu wa 443 Mbere ya Yesu. Ibyinshi byanditswe mu Giheburayo. Ni yo mpamvu ibyo bitabo byitwa Ibyanditswe by’Igiheburayo, nanone bakunda kwita Isezerano rya Kera.

Igice cya kabiri kigizwe n’ibitabo 27, na byo bikaba ari “ijambo ry’Imana” (1 Abatesalonike 2:13). Imana yahumekeye abigishwa ba Yesu Kristo b’indahemuka, bandika ibyo bitabo mu gihe k’imyaka igera kuri 60, kuva mu mwaka wa 41 kugeza mu mwaka wa 98. Hafi ya byose byanditswe mu Kigiriki. Ni yo mpamvu byitwa Ibyanditswe by’Ikigiriki bya Gikristo, bakunze kwita Isezerano Rishya.

Ibyo bitabo byose uko ari 66 ni byo bigize Bibiliya, ikubiyemo ubutumwa Imana yoherereje abantu. Ariko se kuki iyo Bibiliya yahinduwe mu zindi ndimi? Byatewe n’impamvu eshatu.

  • Gufasha abantu gusoma Bibiliya mu ndimi zabo kavukire.
  • Gukosora amakosa y’abandukuzi, bityo umwandiko ugasigara umeze nk’uw’umwimerere.
  • Gukoresha imvugo ihuje n’igihe.

Reka dusuzume uko ibyo bintu byakurikijwe mu guhindura Bibiliya ebyiri za kera.

 BIBILIYA Y’IKIGIRIKI YA SEPTANTE

Imyaka igera kuri 300 Mbere ya Yesu, intiti z’Abayahudi zatangiye guhindura Ibyanditswe by’Igiheburayo mu Kigiriki. Bibiliya bahinduye bayise Bibiliya y’Ikigiriki ya SeptanteKuki yahinduwe? Bagira ngo bafashe Abayahudi benshi bari basigaye bavuga Ikigiriki, aho kuvuga Igiheburayo, kumenya neza “Ibyanditswe byera.”—2 Timoteyo 3:15.

Bibiliya ya Septante yafashije abandi bantu batari Abayahudi babarirwa muri za miriyoni bavugaga Ikigiriki, kumenya inyigisho za Bibiliya. Mu buhe buryo? Porofeseri W. F. Howard yaravuze ati: “Kuva mu kinyejana cya mbere, Abakristo ni bo bagiraga iyo Bibiliya, abamisiyonari babo bakajya mu masinagogi ‘bereka abantu bakoresheje ibyanditswe ko Yesu ari we wari Mesiya’” (Ibyakozwe 17:3, 4; 20:20). Intiti mu bya Bibiliya yitwa F. F. Bruce yaravuze iti: “Iyo ni imwe mu mpamvu yatumye Abayahudi benshi badashishikazwa na Bibiliya ya Septante.”

Uko abigishwa ba Yesu bagendaga babona ibitabo by’Ibyanditswe by’Ikigiriki bya Gikristo, babishyize hamwe bongeraho Bibiliya ya Septante y’Ibyanditswe by’Igiheburayo, zivamo Bibiliya yuzuye dufite muri iki gihe.

BIBILIYA Y’IKILATINI YA VULGATE

Nyuma y’imyaka 300 iyo Bibiliya ibonetse, intiti yitwa Jérôme yayihinduye mu Kilatini, ayita VulgateNone se ko Bibiliya z’Ikilatini zari zihari, kuki n’iyo yari ikenewe? Hari igitabo cyagize kiti: “Yashakaga gukosora aho bahinduye nabi, kongeramo ibyo bavanyemo no kuvanamo ibyo bongereyemo.”—International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

Jérôme yakosoye amakosa menshi. Icyakora, nyuma yaho abayobozi ba Kiliziya bakoze ikosa rikomeye. Bamaze imyaka ibarirwa mu magana bavuga ko Bibiliya y’Ikilatini ya Vulgate ari yo yonyine yemewe. Abantu bo muri rubanda rwa giseseka ntibashoboraga gusobanukirwa Bibiliya ya Vulgate, kuko abenshi batari bazi Ikilatini.

 HAHINDUWE BIBILIYA NYINSHI

Hagati aho, abantu bakomeje guhindura Bibiliya. Urugero, mu kinyejana cya gatanu, hahinduwe Bibiliya y’Igisiriyake izwi cyane yitwa Peshitta. Ariko mu kinyejana cya 14 ni bwo habonetse Bibiliya zihinduye mu ndimi abantu benshi bo muri rubanda bashobora kumva.

Mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 14, John Wycliffe wo mu Bwongereza yashatse kuvana muri Bibiliya imvugo ya kera, maze ahindura mu Cyongereza Bibiliya abantu bo mu gihugu cye bashoboraga kumva. Nyuma yaho gato, Johannes Gutenberg yahimbye uburyo bwo gucapa, maze bituma intiti mu bya Bibiliya zitangira gucapa no gukwirakwiza Bibiliya zahinduwe mu ndimi zivugwa mu Burayi.

Igihe Bibiliya zihinduye mu Cyongereza zabonekaga ari nyinshi, abantu bibajije impamvu hariho Bibiliya zitandukanye mu rurimi rumwe. Umwongereza witwa John Lewis wo mu kinyejana cya 18 yaranditse ati: “Ururimi rurakura kandi rugasaza, ntirube rucyumvikana neza. Ni yo mpamvu tugomba gusubiramo Bibiliya zahinduwe kera, tugakoresha imvugo ihuje n’igihe, abantu bumva.”

Muri iki gihe, abahanga mu bya Bibiliya bafite uburyo bwiza bwo gusubiramo Bibiliya za kera, bakazihuza n’igihe. Basobanukiwe neza indimi za kera Bibiliya yanditswemo, kandi bafite imyandiko ya kera yandikishijwe intoki yavumbuwe vuba aha. Ibyo bituma bamenya neza umwandiko w’umwimerere Bibiliya yanditswemo.

Ubwo rero, kugira Bibiliya zihuje n’igihe ni byiza. Birumvikana ariko ko hari izo tugomba kwitondera. * Niba abantu basubiramo Bibiliya babiterwa n’uko bakunda Imana koko, nta kuntu izo Bibiliya zitatugirira akamaro.

IZINA RYERA RY’IMANA MURI BIBILIYA

Izina ry’Imana muri Bibiliya ya Septante yandikishijwe intoki yo mu gihe cya Yesu
Izina ry’Imana muri Bibiliya ya Septante yandikishijwe intoki yo mu gihe cya Yesu

Bibiliya—Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya ikoresha izina ry’Imana ari ryo Yehova mu Byanditswe by’Igiheburayo no mu Byanditswe by’Ikigiriki bya Gikristo. Inyinshi muri Bibiliya z’Ikinyarwanda zo muri iki gihe ntizikoresha izina ry’Imana. Zikoresha “Umwami” aho gukoresha Yehova. Hari abahinduzi bavuga ko impamvu batarikoresha ari uko izina ry’Imana nk’uko rigaragazwa n’inyuguti enye z’Igiheburayo (YHWH), ritaboneka mu Byanditswe by’Igiheburayo byo muri Bibiliya y’Ikigiriki ya Septante. Ariko se ibyo ni ukuri?

Mu kinyejana cya 20 habonetse bimwe mu bice bya Bibiliya ya Septante byariho mu gihe cya Yesu. Muri ibyo bice harimo izina ry’Imana mu Giheburayo. Birashoboka ko nyuma yaho abayandukuye ari bo bavanyemo iryo zina, bakarisimbuza Kyʹri·os mu Kigiriki bisobanura ngo “Umwami.” Bibiliya—Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya yashubije izina ry’Imana mu mwanya waryo.

Ese Bibiliya Yashyizwemo Amakosa?

Umuzingo w’igitabo cya Yesaya wo ku Nyanja y’Umunyu
Umuzingo w’igitabo cya Yesaya wo ku Nyanja y’Umunyu umaze imyaka 2.000, uhuje neza na Bibiliya dufite ubu

Abandukuye Bibiliya hari amakosa bashyizemo. Ariko ayo makosa ntiyatumye ubutumwa bwo muri Bibiliya buhinduka. Hari igitabo cyagize kiti: “Nta nyigisho igenga ukwizera kwa gikristo utasangamo.”—Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts.

Abandukuzi b’Abayahudi bakoze amakosa make. Hari igitabo cyagize kiti: “Abandukuzi b’Abayahudi bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bandukuye umwandiko wa Bibiliya y’Igiheburayo babyitondeye.”—Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Urugero, hari umuzingo w’igitabo cya Yesaya wabonetse mu yindi mizingo yavumbuwe mu Nyanja y’Umunyu, warushaga imyaka 1.000 indi myandiko yari ihari. Ese uhuje n’iyo dufite muri iki gihe? Urebye, “amagambo yongewemo cyangwa agakurwamo ni make cyane.”—The Book. A History of the Bible.

Amakosa yakozwe n’abandukuzi batabaye maso cyane, urugero nko kwimura inyuguti, amagambo cyangwa interuro, aboneka mu buryo bworoshye kandi agakosorwa. Hari igitabo cyavuze kiti: “Nta kindi gitabo cya kera cyujuje ubuziranenge nk’ubw’Isezerano rya Kera.”—The Books and the Parchments.

Hari ikindi gitabo cyagize kiti: “Abantu bahangayikishijwe n’uko umwandiko wa Bibiliya waba warahindutse, bakwizera ko umwandiko wa kera wo ku mfunzo wabonetse muri Egiputa n’indi myandiko yandikishijwe intoki igacapirwa mu Burayi, idatandukanye rwose.”—The Book. A History of the Bible.

None se Bibiliya yashyizwemo amakosa? Oya rwose.

source:jw.org/rw

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