Uburyo bwo gutekereza mu guteza imbere umuryango w’abantu (igice cya mbere)

Inyandiko bwite ya Bwana Jean Marie Vianney Minani

Impinduramatwara y’abafaransa yabaye 1789-91 yatumye hashyirwaho guverinoma y’abanyagihugu ishingiye kuri demokarasi ku nshuro ya mbere mu bihugu by’Uburayi. Ubwami bukurwaho, Kiriziya n’abapadiri bivangaga cyane mu mitegekere ya politiki nabyo bikurwaho.

Iyi mpinduramatwara y’abafaransa yaherekejwe na gahunda zo kubaka abantu no guteza imbere umuturage binyuze muri gahunda z’imiyoborere, kubaka inzego n’amategeko abereye igihugu.

Muri iyi nyandiko yanjye ndifuza kugaragaza ko iki kintu cyo kubaka abantu mu buryo bwo gutekereza mu guteza imbere umuryango w’abantu ari ingenzi. Ndashaka ko dufata ingero muri contexte yacu y’u Rwanda n’abanyarwanda.

Mu mwaka wa 1959-62 mu Rwanda habaye impinduramatwara, ubwami bukurwaho. Ku bwa mbere mu mateka y’u Rwanda habaye itora (1960) abaturage batoranya ababahagarariye mu nzego z’ubuyobozi. Hari ibitaragenze neza birimo nko kumenesha bamwe mu banyarwanda ndetse ku ruhande rw’abashakaga kugundira ubutegetsi bwa cyami no ku ruhande rw’abaharaniraga impinduka hameneka amaraso.

Repubulika ya mbere imaze kujyaho yakubitanye n’ibibazo by’insobe birimo na expérience ikiri nke mu kuyobora igihugu. Leta ya Repubulika ya mbere yafashe umurongo wo kurwana n’ abashakaga kugarura ubwami bari bariyise inyenzi.

Izo nyenzi zaje gutsindwa ariko ikibazo cyo kugarura mu Rwanda abari ku butegetsi mbere ya 59 ngo basangire ubutegetsi n’abakoze impinduramatwara ya 59 kiba ingorabahizi. Ikibazo cyo kubaka umunyarwanda, gukemura ibibazo bye bishingiye ku mitegekere, imibereho n’imibanire mu gihugu cya bose kirananirana.

Muri 1973 haje Repubulika ya kabiri habaho ikiswe Revolusiyo mvugururamuco maze himakazwa ubumwe n’amahoro mu Rwanda ruyobowe mu ishyaka rimwe rukumbi (MRND). Coup d’état y’i 73 n’ibyakurikiye kugera 1976 abatari bake mu bana b’u Rwanda baricwa abandi barahunga.

Nyuma abasigaye tubaho mu gahenge ka politiki yitwaga iy’iringaniza, ubumwe n’amahoro bidashinze imizi ihamye. Repubulika ya kabiri nayo iba inaniwe ityo gukemura ikibazo cyo kubaka umunyarwanda, gukemura ibibazo bye bishingiye ku mitegekere, imibereho n’imibanire mu gihugu cya bose.

Mu 1990 FPR-inkotanyi iratera iza ivuga ko izanye demokarasi no gukemura ikibazo cy’impunzi cyari kimaze kuba akarande. Hagati ya 1990-1994 haba indi mpinduramatwara ariko yo ivanzemo n’intambara y’amasasu, haba ubwicanyi ndimburamoko hagati y’abasangiye igihugu abahutu n’abatutsi. Arusha ibaho, amashyaka yari yaravutse hamwe Leta ya Repubulika ya kabiri ndetse na FPR bijya mu mishyikirano, LONI ishyiraho akayo, ariko byose birangira bibaye amacenga.

Ubwicanyi buraba byose bihinduka ubusa. Kubaka umunyarwanda, gukemura ibibazo bye bishingiye ku mitegekere, imibereho n’imibanire mu gihugu cya bose birananirana.

FPR ifata ubutegetsi 1994 binyuze mu mivu y’amaraso no kugeza uyu munsi icumu ntirirunamurwa, akarengane ni kose, impunzi z’abanyarwanda zinyanyagiye isi yose.

Leta ya FPR nayo birayinaniye kubaka umunyarwanda, gukemura ibibazo bye bishingiye ku mitegekere, imibereho n’imibanire mu gihugu cya bose.

Ngarutse gato ku mpinduramatwara yabaye mu Bufaransa abayikoze barwanye kugirango bagere ku butegetsi bahindure ibintu kandi koko babigezeho. Igihugu cy’uBufaransa kimaze imyaka isaga 220 gihumeka umudendezo (Liberté), uburinganire (Egalité), n’ubuvandimwe (Fraternité) kandi u Bufaransa bwabereye intangarugero y’ibitekerezo by’ubwisanzure mu Burayi, ubu hafi ya byose ibihugu by’i Burayi bigendera muri demokarasi.

Ngarutse ku by’iwacu i Rwanda icyo ngamije muri iyi nyandiko yanjye no mu zindi zizakurikira ni ukubakangurira mwese abanyarwanda guhindura uburyo bwo gutekereza mugasubiza amaso inyuma mukabona ko nta régime n’imwe irabasha kubakemura ibibazo.

Iki kibazo nakomeje kugarukaho cyo kubaka umunyarwanda, gukemura ibibazo bye bishingiye ku mitegekere, imibereho n’imibanire mu gihugu cya bose nimwe Banyarwanda abahutu n’abatutsi n’Abatwa kireba.

Reka mbe mpiniye aha ubutaha nzabagezaho isano iri hagati y’uburyo bwo gutekereza n’imyumvire mu byiciro bigize umuryango nyarwanda.

Mukomeze kugira iminsi mikuru myiza mu mpera z’umwaka.

Murakoze murakarama

Jean-Marie Minani 27.12.2021

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