Pourquoi le 11 novembre est-il férié en France et dans d’autres pays ?

Le 11 novembre, célébration de l'armistice 14-18

Le 11 novembre est férié en France et est également célébré dans d’autres pays du monde. En France, ce jour célèbre la signature de l’armistice de la guerre 14-18. Retour sur l’histoire de cette journée historique.

Le 11 novembre est un jour férié en France. Il correspond à la date de la signature de l’armistice de la guerre 1914-1918. lepetitjournal.com vous retrace son histoire. 

La signature de l'armistice le 11 novembre 1918
Photo de presse : F.ex. Jan Dąbrowski “Wielka wojna 1914-1918” ( The Great War 1914-1918) 

Le 11 novembre, date de l’armistice

Le maréchal Ferdinand Foch, représentant de la France, l’amiral Wemyss pour le Royaume-Uni et Matthias Erzberger pour l’Allemagne, se sont réunis dans le wagon-restaurant d’un train dans la clairière de Rethondes, dans la forêt de Compiègne dans l’Oise. Ce 11 novembre 1918 à 5H20, l’armistice est signé entre les trois pays pour mettre un terme à la guerre la plus sanglante de l’histoire, la guerre 14-18 et ses 18 millions de morts. Cet armistice n’était cependant que temporaire et ne devait durer que 33 jours. Après un renouvellement, ce n’est que le 28 juin 1919 que le traité de Versailles fut signé et mettant ainsi officiellement fin à la Grande Guerre.

La tombe du soldat inconnu à Paris
La tombe du soldat inconnu à Paris

La célébration du 11 novembre en France et dans le monde

La première célébration du 11 novembre a eu lieu le 11 novembre 1919. Mais ce n’est qu’en 1920 que la première cérémonie a eu lieu dans l’Hexagone avec notamment la remise d’une gerbe de fleurs en honneur du soldat inconnu, un soldat non identifié, représentant tous ceux tombés au front et enterré sous l’Arc de Triomphe. Le 11 novembre ne deviendra férié en France qu’en 1922 et des cérémonies ont lieu dans toute la France aux différents monuments aux morts. Depuis 2012, les cérémonies du 11 novembre sont dédiées aux victimes et aux anciens combattants de tous les conflits. Le bleuet en est le symbole et est porté en boutonnière.

Le 11 novembre est célébré dans d’autres pays comme la Belgique où il est aussi férié mais aussi en Italie ou encore au Portugal. Au Royaume-Uni et dans les pays du Commonwealth, on parle du jour du souvenir et le coquelicot ou poppy est son symbole. Au Canada, le 11 novembre est férié pour les militaires et les fonctionnaires fédéraux.

Aux Etats-Unis, le 11 novembre met à l’honneur les vétérans.

La Pologne célèbre, quant à elle, sa fête nationale et son indépendance retrouvée après 123 ans de domination austro-hongroise, russe et prussienne.

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