Crise en Ukraine : comment la Russie façonne-t-elle le récit ?

Alors que la Russie poursuit son renforcement militaire à la frontière ukrainienne, elle tente également de contrôler le récit des médias – mais quelles sont les parties trompeuses ?

Nous avons examiné quelques exemples des méthodes utilisées par les médias pro-Kremlin.

Promouvoir des histoires non vérifiées

Les médias russes ont l’habitude de promouvoir des contenus émotifs et des affirmations douteuses qui dépeignent l’Ukraine sous un jour négatif.

Dans un exemple largement cité, la télévision d’État russe a montré à plusieurs reprises, en 2014, une femme réfugiée affirmant que les troupes ukrainiennes avaient exécuté un garçon de trois ans.

Aucune preuve n’a jamais été produite pour étayer son récit, et l’histoire a ensuite été rétractée. L’incident est devenu connu sous le nom d’histoire du “garçon crucifié”.

Plus récemment, les médias russes et pro-Kremlin ont fait état d’une vidéo non vérifiée qui montrerait des migrants se faisant tirer dessus par les forces ukrainiennes à la frontière avec le Belarus.

Le clip de mauvaise qualité, qui a été tourné avec une caméra infrarouge, a été publié sur Facebook début décembre, ce qui a incité plusieurs médias russes à citer des “rapports de médias locaux” affirmant que les soldats ukrainiens tiraient sur les réfugiés.

Le soldat sur le compte Facebook duquel la vidéo est apparue pour la première fois a déclaré que son compte avait été piraté.

Un site d’information local et une organisation non gouvernementale dont les sites web contenaient des articles sur l’incident présumé ont également affirmé avoir été piratés.

La BBC n’est pas en mesure de vérifier de manière indépendante si ces sites ont été piratés ou non.

Dépeindre l’Ukraine comme un pays pro-nazi

Suggérer que l’Ukraine est un pays aligné sur le nazisme a été une caractéristique régulière de la couverture médiatique russe.

Dans un exemple, le ministère russe des Affaires étrangères a souligné dans des messages sur les médias sociaux que l’Ukraine et les États-Unis avaient voté contre une résolution de l’ONU soutenue par la Russie et condamnant la glorification du nazisme.

Le tweet soulignait que 130 nations avaient voté en faveur de la résolution et seulement deux contre.

Un tweet du ministère russe des Affaires étrangères sur les résultats du vote de l'ONU autour de la glorification du nazisme
Légende image,Les États-Unis et l’Ukraine affirment que leur vote contre la résolution n’a rien à voir avec un soutien au nazisme

Il est vrai que les deux pays ont refusé de soutenir la résolution. Cependant, les messages du ministère russe n’ont pas fourni le contexte de leurs décisions.

L’Ukraine a déclaré que son refus était dû au fait qu’elle pensait que la résolution était motivée par des raisons de propagande.

Les États-Unis ont affirmé que le document était une “tentative à peine voilée de légitimer les campagnes de désinformation russes”.

Les États-Unis et l’Ukraine ont tous deux souligné leur condamnation du nazisme après le vote.

Un soldat ukrainien monte la garde dans la région de Donetsk
Légende image,Les médias russes n’ont cessé de suggérer que l’Ukraine avait de forts penchants néo-nazis

Des inquiétudes ont été soulevées quant aux liens entre les groupes d’extrême droite ukrainiens et les néonazis – plus précisément le bataillon nationaliste Azov qui s’est fait connaître au plus fort du conflit ukrainien et qui est désormais une unité au sein de l’armée du pays.

Cependant, l’extrême droite reste une petite minorité dans le pays – lors des élections de 2019, les candidats et les groupes d’extrême droite tels que Svoboda sont restés loin des 5 % minimum nécessaires pour entrer au parlement.

Depuis novembre dernier, il y a eu de gros pics d’histoires liant l’Ukraine au nazisme , selon Logically, une société technologique a suivi des centaines de comptes de médias sociaux pro-Kremlin.

Selon Brian Murphy de Logically, à des “moments clés”, ces idées ont été largement partagées dans le paysage médiatique pro-russe.

“Nous observons des périodes de pics qui ont tendance à coïncider avec des événements mondiaux et à aller à l’encontre des efforts diplomatiques russes ou d’autres choses qui leur tiennent à cœur”, ajoute-t-il.

La Russie est “prompte à qualifier ses adversaires et ses victimes en Europe de nazis”, déclare Keir Giles, un expert de la Russie qui a rédigé un rapport de l’OTAN sur la guerre de l’information russe.

“Nous l’avons vu non seulement en Ukraine, mais aussi dans la diffamation des États baltes par la Russie”, ajoute-t-il.

Les femmes soldats ukrainiennes sur la ligne de front
Légende image,Les femmes soldats sont en première ligne alors que les tensions frontalières augmentent

Les commentaires des lecteurs sont utilisés pour représenter l’opinion publique

Ces dernières semaines, certains médias d’État russes ont publié des titres trompeurs sur le soutien international à l’Ukraine, en se basant uniquement sur les commentaires des utilisateurs de sites médiatiques occidentaux.

Un article publié sur le site de l’agence de presse d’État RIA Novosti fin janvier affirmait que les lecteurs “britanniques” du Daily Express soutenaient l’idée que l’Ukraine ne devait pas être défendue parce que la Russie avait une présence militaire plus forte que celle de l’OTAN dans la région.

Un autre article suggérait que les lecteurs se moquaient du potentiel militaire de l’Ukraine.

On s’inquiète également du fait que des trolls pro-Kremlin, utilisant de faux comptes, ont ciblé des sites de médias britanniques et étrangers, afin de promouvoir les intérêts russes.

Des recherches menées l’année dernière par l’Institut de recherche sur le crime et la sécurité de l’université de Cardiff ont révélé que les sections de commentaires de 32 sites médiatiques importants dans 16 pays, dont le Daily Express, avaient été ciblées par des trolls pro-Kremlin.

Selon les chercheurs, leurs commentaires anti-occidentaux et pro-russes servaient ensuite de base à des articles d’actualité dans les médias en langue russe.

Un militaire russe regarde à travers des jumelles

Utiliser les voix occidentales pour exagérer le soutien à la Russie

L’activité des comptes diffusant de la propagande pro-russe a augmenté de façon spectaculaire en novembre dernier, selon les recherches du groupe de contre-désinformation Mythos Labs.

Au cours de ce mois, ces comptes ont tweeté sur l’Ukraine 213 fois par jour en moyenne.

Une tactique – comme l’ont noté les chercheurs – a consisté à amplifier les voix non russes qui expriment des points de vue conformes à la position de Moscou.

Les comptes amplifiés comprennent le journaliste australien John Pilger qui, dans un récent tweet, a accusé les États-Unis d’avoir renversé le gouvernement élu en Ukraine en 2014.

“Biden ment à propos de la Russie”, dit Pilger. “Ce sont les États-Unis qui ont renversé le gouvernement élu en Ukraine en 2014, permettant à l’Otan de marcher jusqu’à la frontière occidentale de la Rusie.”

Ses tweets ont été retweetés par 87 comptes identifiés par les chercheurs comme ayant diffusé de la propagande pro-russe sur l’Ukraine.

BBC

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