Océanographie : qu’est-ce que le royaume des abysses, l’écosystème le moins connu de la Terre que les scientifiques commencent à découvrir ?

Navire de recherche allemand Sonne
Légende image,Cette nouvelle étude a été rendue possible grâce aux efforts de 15 expéditions internationales qui ont collecté des échantillons de la zone abyssale dans tous les océans. Sur la photo, le navire de recherche allemand Sonne.

C’est la région la moins explorée de la planète, bien qu’elle occupe plus de 60 % de la croûte terrestre.

La zone abyssale, également connue sous le nom de “royaume abyssal”, est une couche de l’océan profond où se trouve une grande partie des fonds marins.

C’est un monde aux conditions extrêmes, mais qui abrite une grande richesse de vie.

Des scientifiques de huit pays ont réalisé la plus grande analyse à ce jour d’ADN provenant d’eau et de sédiments des profondeurs océaniques.

L’étude, qui vient d’être publiée dans la revue Science Advances, révèle que de nombreuses espèces vivant dans le royaume abyssal sont totalement nouvelles pour la science.

Trois experts espagnols, auteurs de l’étude, ont expliqué à BBC Mundo ce qu’est la zone abyssale, quelles sont les principales conclusions de cette nouvelle recherche et pourquoi il est urgent de protéger ce monde presque inconnu.

Qu’est-ce que le royaume des abysses et où commence-t-il ?

“C’est la zone des océans qui commence à une profondeur de 4 000 mètres”, déclare Covadonga Orejas Saco del Valle, chercheur au Centre océanographique de Gijón, qui fait partie de l’Institut espagnol d’océanographie (CSIC).

“On dit qu’il s’agit de la dernière frontière, car nous en savons très peu à son sujet. En fait, les surfaces de la Lune et de Mars sont cartographiées dans leur intégralité, mais seulement 20 % du plancher océanique a été cartographié à ce jour”, ajoute l’expert espagnol.

La zone abyssale atteint jusqu’à 6 000 mètres, et de là commence ce que l’on appelle la zone hadale.

Navire de recherche allemand Sonne
Légende image,Cette nouvelle étude a été rendue possible grâce aux efforts de 15 expéditions internationales qui ont collecté des échantillons de la zone abyssale dans tous les océans. Sur la photo, le navire de recherche allemand Sonne.

Une grande partie du plancher océanique se trouve à des profondeurs d’environ 4 000 à 5 500 mètres.

“Il existe encore d’autres parties dans les tranchées où l’on peut descendre à 10 000, 15 000 mètres, mais cela ne représente que 5 ou 6 % de la planète”, indique Pedro Martínez Arbizu, biologiste marin et chercheur au musée d’histoire naturelle Senckenberg en Allemagne.

À quoi ressemble ce monde extrême et qui y vit ?

Dans la zone abyssale, la pression est très élevée. “(Il y a) 500 à 600 atmosphères de pression, 500 à 600 fois plus que la pression atmosphérique que nous avons à la surface”, précise Martínez Arbizu.

En revanche, selon Orejas Saco del Valle, “les températures sont très basses (entre 2 et 3 degrés) et il n’y a pas de lumière”.

“La faune est variée, appartenant à différents groupes taxonomiques, des organismes minuscules aux différentes espèces de poissons, et cette étude montre qu’elle est encore plus diversifiée qu’on ne le pensait auparavant”, ajoute-t-elle.

Comme aucune lumière n’atteint ces profondeurs, la photosynthèse n’est pas possible.

Fondo marino
Légende image,Aucune lumière n’atteint la zone abyssale.

Dans la zone abyssale, les organismes “se nourrissent uniquement de ce qui tombe de la surface de l’océan dans ce que nous appelons la neige marine”, souligne M. Martínez Arbizu.

“Ce sont les restes d’algues et les restes des carcasses des petits habitants zoo planctoniques qui tombent peu à peu et atteignent ces profondeurs.

Cependant, seuls 5 % de ce qui est produit à la surface se retrouvent en bas, a ajouté le scientifique. Le reste est consommé à la surface ou en transit dans la colonne d’eau.

Organisme au fond de la mer dans la zone abyssale
Légende image,Dans la zone abyssale, les organismes se nourrissent de ce qui tombe de la surface de l’océan dans ce qu’on appelle la neige marine.

Ramon Massana, chercheur à l’Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC) de Barcelone et spécialiste de l’écologie microbienne, explique que les organismes vivant dans les sédiments abyssaux comprennent une grande variété d’animaux (nématodes, crustacés, annélides) ainsi que des eucaryotes et procaryotes microbiens. “Ce sont des espèces qui sont totalement adaptées à ces conditions extrêmes”.

Les eucaryotes sont les organismes, tels que les plantes et les animaux – y compris les humains – qui sont composés de cellules eucaryotes, lesquelles possèdent un noyau différencié protégé par une membrane.

Les procaryotes, quant à eux, sont des micro-organismes tels que les bactéries, dont les cellules – les procaryotes – ne possèdent pas de noyau distinct et dans lesquelles le matériel génétique est dispersé dans le cytoplasme).

Pourquoi sait-on si peu de choses sur le royaume des abysses ?

Cette étude est le résultat d’un vaste effort international au cours duquel des échantillons provenant de 15 expéditions internationales ont été analysés.

“C’est un écosystème difficile d’accès, nous en savons donc si peu. Et la réalisation de ces recherches est très coûteuse. D’où l’importance de mettre en commun les efforts et les ressources et d’établir des collaborations internationales comme celle que montre cette recherche”, note Orejas Saco del Valle.

Covadonga Orejas Saco del Valle observant un organisme océanique au microscope.
Légende image,Covadonga Orejas Saco del Valle est chercheur au Centre océanographique de Gijón, qui fait partie de l’Institut espagnol d’océanographie (CSIC).

Martínez Arbizu souligne, par exemple, que pour prélever un échantillon avec une drague à une profondeur de 5 000 mètres, un navire doit disposer d’un câble de plus de 10 km, et peu de navires ont cette capacité.

Que révèle l’étude ?

Les scientifiques ont analysé 1 700 échantillons d’eau et de sédiments provenant de la zone abyssale, ainsi que deux mille milliards de séquences d’ADN.

Les résultats de ce séquençage massif ont été à leur tour comparés à des échantillons provenant de différents niveaux de la colonne d’eau dans tous les océans du monde.

“La principale découverte a été de caractériser la grande diversité qui habite les profondeurs abyssales et hadales, et combien il reste à y découvrir”, commente Orejas Saco del Valle.

“L’étude montre que la diversité du plancher océanique, que l’on pensait inférieure à celle de la colonne d’eau, est très élevée, en fait jusqu’à trois fois supérieure. Cela nous donne une nouvelle image de la vie sur les fonds océaniques sédimentaires”, ajoute-t-elle.

Organisme au fond de la mer dans la zone abyssale
Légende image,La diversité des espèces dans la zone abyssale est jusqu’à trois fois plus élevée que dans la colonne d’eau.

“C’est surprenant”, fait remarquer Martínez Arbizu, “car en fait, presque tous les groupes d’animaux ont une famille qui est représentée sur le plateau abyssal.

“Il peut s’agir d’étoiles de mer, de crustacés comme les petites crevettes, de coraux, d’éponges, mais ce sont des formes différentes de ce que nous connaissons en surface.

Environ deux tiers de cette diversité ne peuvent être attribués à aucun groupe connu.

“Ces espèces sont nouvelles, personne ne les a encore étudiées, il n’y a pas de références dans les bases de données internationales. Souvent, nous ne savons pas à quel groupe d’animaux ils appartiennent”, poursuit M. Martínez Arbizu.

Orejas Saco del Valle signale que l’ADN ancien déposé dans les sédiments contribuera également à reconstituer les caractéristiques passées de l’océan.

Pourquoi l’étude présente-t-elle une vision unifiée de l’ADN dans l’océan ?

L’étude représente la première vision unifiée de la biodiversité eucaryote dans les océans à l’échelle mondiale, basée sur l’analyse de l’ADN de la surface de l’océan aux sédiments océaniques profonds.

Les résultats permettront donc d’aborder pour la première fois des questions d’écologie marine à l’échelle mondiale.

“Avant cette étude, les résultats de campagnes de circumnavigation, telles que les expéditions Malaspina et TaraOceans, avaient été publiés, ce qui avait permis de caractériser la diversité du plancton microbien eucaryote au niveau de l’océan mondial, mais la connaissance de la diversité dans les sédiments profonds était très partielle et fragmentée”, explique Ramon Massana.

“Cette étude rassemble les données de 15 expéditions internationales dans les sédiments profonds, ce qui permet également d’avoir une vision globale de la diversité benthique. (Benthos, ou fond marin en grec, est une référence aux organismes vivant au fond de l’océan, par opposition à ceux qui vivent dans la colonne d’eau, comme le plancton).

M. Massana ajoute que grâce à ces nouvelles recherches, “pour la première fois, nous pouvons comparer ces deux composantes, plancton et benthos, à l’échelle mondiale”.

Quel rôle le royaume abyssal joue-t-il dans la “pompe biologique” ?

Un aspect essentiel de l’étude est que les scientifiques ont pu différencier l’ADN des organismes planctoniques dont les restes sont tombés au fond de l’océan de l’ADN des organismes indigènes vivant dans la zone abyssale.

Cette distinction permet de mieux comprendre ce que l’on appelle la “pompe biologique” : le processus qui transfère le dioxyde de carbone atmosphérique vers les profondeurs de l’océan, régulant ainsi le climat mondial et atténuant l’impact du changement climatique.

Ramon Massana
Légende image,Ramon Massana est un scientifique de l’Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC) à Barcelone et un spécialiste de l’écologie microbienne.

“Les écosystèmes benthiques d’eau profonde sont à la base de deux services écosystémiques d’importance mondiale”, selon M. Massana.

D’une part, ils participent au recyclage des nutriments inorganiques, dit-il. “La matière organique qui atteint ces régions est reminéralisée, et les nutriments inorganiques finissent par retourner dans les couches de surface pour permettre la photosynthèse.

“D’autre part, une partie du carbone sédimenté est stockée dans les sédiments à des échelles de temps géologiques”, poursuit-il.

“Cela constitue la pompe à carbone biologique : la photosynthèse capte le CO2 atmosphérique, une petite partie sédimente et est séquestrée dans les sédiments profonds.”

“Ce processus contribue actuellement à atténuer partiellement les effets de l’apport de CO2 dans l’atmosphère résultant de l’utilisation de combustibles fossiles.

Espèces trouvées au fond de l'océan
Légende image,Environ deux tiers de la diversité trouvée dans le royaume abyssal ne peuvent être attribués à aucun groupe connu.

S’agit-il d’un écosystème menacé ?

Orejas Saco del Valle souligne la pertinence des informations de l’étude pour concevoir des stratégies de gestion et de protection appropriées pour les écosystèmes des grands fonds marins, “qui sont uniques et très importants sur le plan fonctionnel”.

Le royaume abyssal “est comme un trésor”, définit Martínez Arbizu. Et il rappelle que ses organismes peuvent contenir des enzymes ou d’autres produits potentiellement nécessaires.

“C’est la même chose qui se passe avec la forêt amazonienne : si nous détruisons toute cette diversité, peut-être perdrons-nous la capacité de trouver des solutions aux problèmes que nous aurons à l’avenir”.

Fondo marino
Légende image,Aucune lumière n’atteint la zone abyssale.

L’extraction de minéraux du fond des océans suscite actuellement un intérêt croissant.

“Pour autant que nous le sachions, les effets seront plutôt négatifs”, a déclaré M. Martínez Arbizu.

“Les zones qui peuvent être touchées par l’exploitation minière, par exemple des nodules de manganèse, sont assez vastes.

“En raison de la température très basse, tous les processus vitaux de la faune qui y vit sont très lents. Si vous endommagez un écosystème en eau profonde, il faudra de nombreuses années pour qu’il se rétablisse. Nous pensons à 50, 100, 200 ans, voire plus.

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  82. 좋은 정보 항상 감사합니다. 저도 똑같이 알려드리고 싶은데요 혹시 여자친구 만드는 정보 이렇한
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