Covid : comment les symptômes du Covid diffèrent-ils entre les personnes non vaccinées et celles qui ont reçu deux doses ou plus ?

Ange Eric Hatangimana

Yannick Izabayo

Le nez qui coule, des maux de tête, des éternuements, des maux de gorge et une toux persistante. Ce sont les cinq symptômes les plus fréquents chez les personnes qui ont eu Covid après avoir reçu deux doses ou plus d’un vaccin.

Chez les personnes qui n’ont pas été vaccinées, la maladie est le plus souvent associée, par ordre décroissant, à des maux de tête, des maux de gorge, un écoulement nasal, de la fièvre et une toux persistante.

Ces découvertes interviennent après plus de deux ans de suivi des cas au Royaume-Uni à l’aide d’une application créée par la société technologique Zoe.

Les données ont été analysées en collaboration avec des chercheurs du King’s College de Londres et avec le soutien du service de santé publique britannique, le NHS.

Plus de 4,7 millions d’utilisateurs inscrits sur la plateforme numérique ont consigné les symptômes qu’ils ressentent après avoir obtenu un résultat positif au test Covid.

Grâce à cela, les experts analysent les informations et établissent une sorte de classement des symptômes les plus courants, qui ont considérablement évolué au cours de la pandémie.

Les travaux (qui ont reçu des fonds du gouvernement britannique jusqu’en mars 2022) ont été essentiels pour identifier rapidement certains des effets les moins attendus de Covid, comme la perte de l’odorat ou du goût.

Un changement léger mais pertinent

Parmi les personnes ayant reçu au moins deux doses du vaccin, les symptômes les plus courants de Covid ont été les suivants :

  • nez qui coule
  • maux de tête
  • mal de gorge
  • toux persistante

Parmi les personnes qui n’ont reçu aucune dose, les principaux symptômes sont :

  • maux de tête
  • mal de gorge
  • nez qui coule
  • fièvre
  • toux persistante

La principale différence est que chez les non-vaccinés, il y avait de la fièvre, ce qui indique un problème plus grave.

Ils ont également signalé davantage de maux de tête et de gorge par rapport à ceux qui ont reçu deux doses ou plus d’un vaccin Covid.

Une femme se faisant vacciner
Légende image,La vaccination est le meilleur moyen d’éviter les complications graves associées au Covid.

“Il existe des raisons pour expliquer ce changement, comme le fait que les individus vaccinés présentent des symptômes moins graves”, ont déclaré les responsables de l’expérience.

“Nous devons également tenir compte du fait qu’un plus grand nombre de cas sont signalés chez les jeunes individus, qui ont tendance à déclarer des symptômes moins graves et distincts”, ajoutent-ils.

Les auteurs préviennent que le classement des symptômes est basé uniquement sur les informations partagées dans l’application. Cela ne tient pas compte de la circulation de variantes spécifiques du coronavirus.

Il est également utile de rappeler que les symptômes du Covid peuvent varier considérablement. La liste complète des symptômes de la maladie, selon le service de santé publique britannique, comprend :

  • une température élevée ou des tremblements (frissons)
  • une toux nouvelle et continue – c’est-à-dire une toux importante pendant plus d’une heure, ou 3 épisodes de toux ou plus en 24 heures
  • une perte ou une modification de l’odorat ou du goût
  • un essoufflement
  • une sensation de fatigue ou d’épuisement
  • des douleurs corporelles
  • un mal de tête
  • un mal de gorge
  • nez bouché ou qui coule
  • une perte d’appétit
  • une diarrhée
  • une sensation de malaise

Que faire si je présente les symptômes du Covid ?

Selon les autorités nationales et internationales, si vous présentez un ou plusieurs des symptômes typiques d’une infection à coronavirus, la première chose à faire est de rester chez vous et de limiter les interactions avec les autres.

Cette mesure est d’autant plus importante si vous êtes en contact avec des personnes vulnérables aux complications du Covid, comme les personnes âgées ou les patients dont le système immunitaire est affaibli.

Une autre étape importante consiste à passer un test pour confirmer ou infirmer la maladie.

Outre le test PCR, qui est considéré comme la principale méthode de diagnostic et la plus efficace, il est possible, dans de nombreux pays, de trouver des tests antigéniques rapides en pharmacie ou ailleurs.

Si le résultat est positif, il est important de rester isolé pendant cinq à sept jours.

Si les malaises s’améliorent après cette période, il est possible de reprendre ses activités habituelles. Toutefois, s’ils s’aggravent (ou si des symptômes plus graves apparaissent, comme des difficultés respiratoires), il est important de demander une assistance médicale urgente.

Une femme faisant un test Covid
Légende image,Les tests Covid analysent la salive et les cellules de la gorge à la recherche de preuves de la présence de coronavirus.

Pourquoi les personnes vaccinées contractent-elles encore le Covid ?

Les vaccins contre le Covid ont été développés dans un but principal : réduire le risque de développer les complications les plus graves de la maladie, qui sont celles liées aux hospitalisations, aux intubations et aux décès.

Quel que soit le type de technologie sur lequel repose le vaccin, tous ont le même objectif initial : exposer en toute sécurité notre système immunitaire à un virus ou à une bactérie (ou à des parties de ceux-ci).

À partir de ce premier contact, qui n’affecte pas notre santé, les cellules qui nous défendent génèrent une réponse capable de préparer l’organisme au cas où une véritable infection arriverait.

Ce processus immunitaire est extrêmement compliqué et implique une grande force de cellules et d’anticorps. La réponse immunitaire varie donc considérablement en fonction du type de virus, de sa capacité à muter, de la manière dont le vaccin a été développé, des problèmes préexistants de la personne et d’autres variables.

Il est donc très difficile de développer un agent immunisant capable de prévenir l’infection elle-même, c’est-à-dire de bloquer l’entrée de la cause de la maladie dans nos cellules.

Mais voici un point très important : même dans les cas où le vaccin ne peut pas empêcher une infection, la réponse immunitaire qu’il crée peut souvent rendre les symptômes moins graves, prévenant ainsi une maladie plus grave et la mort.

C’est ce qui se passe avec les vaccins contre le rotavirus et la grippe, par exemple, et c’est exactement le même phénomène que nous observons avec le Covid-19 : bien que les vaccins disponibles n’arrêtent pas les nouvelles vagues de cas, ils fonctionnent bien pour empêcher la plupart des infections de s’aggraver.

En témoignent les vagues survenues entre la fin de l’année 2021 et le début de l’année 2022 liées à la variante Omicron, lorsque de nombreux pays ont battu des records en termes de nombre de cas, mais que les taux d’hospitalisation et de mortalité étaient nettement inférieurs à ceux enregistrés à d’autres moments de la pandémie.

Une étude des Centres américains de contrôle et de prévention des maladies (CDC), publiée en mars, a calculé l’étendue de cette protection. Elle révèle que les adultes qui ont reçu trois doses de vaccins Covid ont un risque de 94 % inférieur de devoir être hospitalisés, de bénéficier d’une assistance respiratoire mécanique ou de mourir, par rapport à ceux qui n’ont pas été vaccinés.

Une troisième preuve de cet effet protecteur provient du suivi effectué par ZOE et le King’s College.

Ils ont constaté que certains symptômes graves du Covid, tels que l’essoufflement et une forte fièvre, étaient beaucoup plus fréquents au début de la pandémie, lorsque les vaccins n’étaient pas encore disponibles.

Après diverses vagues de cas et, surtout, avec les doses que la grande majorité de la population avait prises, ces types de symptômes ont commencé à baisser dans le classement, et ont été progressivement remplacés en tête par des rapports de désagréments mineurs, comme l’écoulement nasal et les éternuements.

source :BBC

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