COP26: Abategetsi bakomeye b’iyi si bahora babeshyana bicaye ku meza amwe ku ihindagurika ry’ikirere

Inama yari itegerejwe cyane ku ihindagurika rw’ikirere izwi nka COP26 imaze gutangira mu mujyi wa Glasgow muri Scotland (Écosse). Intumwa zivuye mu bihugu bigera hafi kuri 200 zirahatangariza ukuntu zizagabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2030 nk’uburyo bwo gufasha uyu mubumbe. Ingingo bahora babeshyanyaho uko umwaka utashye.

Mu gihe hari ubushyuhe bw’isi buva ku myotsi ihumanya ikirere iterwa n’abantu, abahanga muri siyansi baburira ko hacyenewe kugira igikorwa cyihutirwa mu kwirinda ko isi ihura n’amakuba.

Minisitiri w’intebe w’Ubwongereza Boris Johnson yavuze ko yifuza ko noneho iyi nama iba “igihe cy’isi cyo kubwizanya ukuri”.

Avuga mbere y’iyi nama y’ibyumweru bibiri, yashishikarije abategetsi kubyaza umusaruro iyi nama mu buryo bushoboka bwose, ati: “Ikibazo buri muntu wese arimo kubaza ni niba tubyaza umusaruro iki gihe cyangwa tukireka kikaducika”.

Perezida w’inama ya COP26 Alok Sharma yavuze ko amasezerano yaba “akaze cyane kurusha ayo twagezeho i Paris” mu myaka itanu ishize, ubwo ibihugu hafi ya byose byo ku isi byemeraga amasezerano yo “gukomeza umuhate” wo kugabanya kwiyongera kw’ubushyuhe bw’isi ntiburenge dogere 1.5C.

Yabwiye ikiganiro Andrew Marr Show kuri BBC One ati: “Ibi birareba abategetsi. Bacyeneye kwiyemeza kandi ducyeneye kwemeranya hamwe ukuntu tugiye kugera kuri iyi ntego”.

Yavuze ko “twari twiteze ibirenzeho” ku bihugu nk’Ubushinwa – igihugu cya mbere ku isi gisohora imyuka myinshi ya ‘carbon’ ihumanya ikirere – ndetse avuga ko iyi nama ari “umwanya nyawo” kuri byo wo kugaragaza ubuyobozi muri uru rwego.

Alok Sharma mu kiganiro Andrew Marr Show kuri BBC One
Perezida w’inama ya COP26 Alok Sharma mu kiganiro Andrew Marr Show kuri BBC One

Ku munsi wa mbere w’iyi nama, haramurikwa raporo igaragaza uko ihindagurika ry’ikirere rimeze, yakozwe n’ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku iteganyagihe (World Meteorological Organization, WMO).

Raporo ya WMO, yakozwe n’inzobere mu buhanga bw’uko ikirere kimeze, igereranya ubushyuhe bw’isi muri uyu mwaka n’ubwo mu myaka ishize.

Ibihe by’ubushyuhe bwinshi cyane bivugwa ko bifitanye isano n’ihindagurika ry’ikirere – birimo nk’ibihe birebire by’ubushyuhe bwinshi cyane budasanzwe, imyuzure n’imiriro yibasira amashyamba – birimo kugira ubukana bwinshi.

Imyaka icumi ishize ni yo ya mbere yashyushye cyane ku isi, kandi za leta zemera ko hacyenewe kugira igikorwa mu buryo bwihutirwa.

Iyi nama y’umuryango w’abibumbye (ONU/UN) ni imwe mu nama zitabiriwe n’abantu benshi cyane Ubwongereza bwakiriye mu mateka yabwo. Yacyerereweho umwaka umwe kubera icyorezo cya Covid. COP ni impine y'”inama y’abo bireba” (conference of the parties), iyi ikaba ari inama nk’iyo ya 26.

Benshi mu bategetsi baragera muri iyi nama ku mugoroba wo kuri iki cyumweru. Benshi barimo kuva mu yindi nama, ya G20 ihuza ibihugu bikize ku isi, i Roma mu Butaliyani.

Iki cyumweru ahanini ni umunsi w’imihango yo gutangiza iyi nama, havugwa amagambo atandukanye, harimo nk’ijambo rya Abdulla Shahid, Perezida w’inteko rusange ya ONU akaba na Minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga wa Maldives.

Icyo gihugu cyo muri Aziya y’amajyepfo kigizwe n’ibirwa (amazinga mu Kirundi) bigufi, biri ku nkeke z’ihindagurika ry’ikirere kubera kwiyongera kw’amazi y’inyanja.

Ibihugu byo muri buri gice cy’isi biraba bifite ababihagarariye i Glasgow, biteguye kuvuga kuri gahunda zabyo zo kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2030.

Mu 2015, byose byemeranyije gukora impinduka zo gutuma ubushyuhe bw’isi buguma “munsi cyane” ya dogere 2C hejuru y’ikigero bwariho mbere y’umwaduko w’inganda (amahinguriro mu Kirundi).

Ariko kuva ubwo, mu gihe ibihe by’ubushyuhe bwinshi cyane byakajije umurego, abahanga mu bumenyi bw’ikirere bashishikarije ibihugu kwiha intego yo ku kigero cya dogere 1.5C, mu kugabanya ibyago by’amakuba aturutse ku ihindagurika ry’ikirere.

COP26 ishobora mu by’ukuri kurokora isi?

Urebeye inyuma, ibintu ntibitanga icyizere, ku mpamvu yoroshye kumva: inama 25 za rutura zabanjirije iyi zananiwe gufunga ahava imyuka ihumanya ikirere irimo kongera ubushyuhe bw’isi.Ibyabo ni ukubeshyana ubuzima bugakomeza.Nta kintu na gito kiri gukorwa.

Nubwo hashize imyaka mirongo itatu havugwa amagambo atagira igikorwa na kimwe gifatika kigaragara, ubu isi irashyushye kurushaho ku kigero kitari munsi ya dogere 1.1C ugereranyije no ku kigero cya mbere y’inganda – kandi ubushyuhe burimo kwiyongera.

Ariko kuri iyi nama, noneho icyizere cyuko hari intambwe ifatika yaterwa kiri hejuru cyane kurusha ubusanzwe.

Ku ruhande rumwe, biraterwa n’uko ibyago biri kutugeraho. Muri uyu mwaka imyuzure yishe abantu 200 mu Budage, ubushyuhe bwinshi cyane bw’igihe kirekire bwibasiye Canada ndetse n’akarere ka Siberian Arctic kari karimo gushya.

Kandi abahanga muri siyansi ubu barabisobanura neza kurushaho, ko kugira ngo twirinde ubushyuhe bwangiza byinshi cyane, bivuze kugabanyaho kimwe cya kabiri imyuka iva ku isi ihumanya ikirere ya ‘carbon’ bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2030 – igihe ntarengwa kitwegereye cyane kuburyo byatuma dushyira ubwenge ku gihe.

Ese noneho aba bategetsi barakanguka bave mu bitotsi cyangwa barafunga umwuka nk’ibisanzwe bisenyereho iyi si-inzu yacu twese?

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