La science est-​elle d’accord avec la Bible?

Réponse de la Bible

Oui, car même si la Bible n’est pas un manuel de science, elle est exacte quand elle parle de sujets scientifiques. Prenons quelques exemples montrant que la science et la Bible ne se contredisent pas. Vous constaterez que les faits scientifiques que la Bible cite sont très différents de ce que beaucoup de gens croyaient à l’époque où elle a été écrite.

  • L’univers a eu un commencement (Genèse 1:1). De nombreux mythes de l’Antiquité ne disent pas que l’univers a été créé, mais qu’il s’est organisé à partir d’un chaos préexistant. Les Babyloniens croyaient que les dieux qui ont fait venir l’univers à l’existence étaient issus de deux océans. D’autres légendes racontent que l’univers est né d’un œuf géant.
  • Ce sont les lois de la nature qui gouvernent l’univers jour après jour, et pas les caprices de divinités (Job 38:33 ; Jérémie 33:25). Dans le monde entier, des mythes prétendent que les humains ne peuvent échapper aux actes imprévisibles, et parfois cruels, des dieux.
  • La terre est suspendue dans le vide (Job 26:7). Pour quantité de peuples de l’Antiquité, le monde était un disque qui reposait sur un géant ou un animal, comme un buffle ou une tortue.
  • Les fleuves et les sources sont alimentés par l’eau qui s’évapore notamment des océans, puis qui retombe sur la terre sous forme de pluie, de neige ou de grêle (Job 36:27, 28 ; Ecclésiaste 1:7 ; Isaïe 55:10 ; Amos 9:6). Les anciens Grecs pensaient que l’eau des fleuves et des rivières venait d’un océan souterrain ; cette idée a persisté jusqu’au XVIIIsiècle.
  • Les montagnes s’élèvent et s’abaissent ; les montagnes d’aujourd’hui étaient autrefois sous les océans (Psaume 104:6, 8). D’après divers mythes, les montagnes ont été créées telles qu’elles sont par les dieux.
  • Les mesures sanitaires protègent la santé. La Loi reçue par la nation d’Israël comprenait des règles concernant l’hygiène à respecter après avoir touché un cadavre, la mise en quarantaine en cas de maladie contagieuse et l’élimination des excréments humains (Lévitique 11:28 ; 13:1-5 ; Deutéronome 23:13). À l’époque où ces commandements ont été donnés, les Égyptiens utilisaient un remède consistant à appliquer sur une plaie ouverte un mélange composé entre autres d’excréments humains.

Du point de vue de la science, y a-​t-​il des erreurs dans la Bible ?

Un examen objectif de la Bible montre que la réponse est non. Voici ce que beaucoup pensent à tort au sujet de la Bible :

Idée reçue : La Bible dit que l’univers a été créé en six jours de 24 heures.

Réalité : Selon la Bible, Dieu a créé l’univers au cours d’une période du passé non précisée (Genèse 1:1). Et les jours de création mentionnés au chapitre 1 de la Genèse sont des périodes dont la durée n’est pas précisée non plus. D’ailleurs, la période toute entière durant laquelle la terre et les cieux ont été faits est aussi appelée un « jour » (Genèse 2:4).

Idée reçue : La Bible dit que la végétation a été créée avant que le Soleil n’existe, et donc avant que la photosynthèse soit possible (Genèse 1:11, 16).

Réalité : La Bible montre que le Soleil, l’une des étoiles qui composent « le ciel », a été créé avant la végétation (Genèse 1:1). Une lumière diffuse provenant du Soleil atteignait la surface de la Terre durant le premier « jour », ou période, de création. Tandis que l’atmosphère s’éclaircissait, au troisième « jour » de création, la lumière a été suffisante pour que la photosynthèse ait lieu (Genèse 1:3-5, 12, 13). Ce n’est que plus tard que le Soleil est devenu visible distinctement depuis la surface de la Terre (Genèse 1:16).

Idée reçue : La Bible dit que le Soleil tourne autour de la Terre.

Réalité : On lit en Ecclésiaste 1:5 : « Le soleil se lève et le soleil se couche, puis il se hâte de revenir au lieu où il se lève de nouveau. » Mais cette phrase décrit simplement le mouvement apparent du Soleil, perçu depuis la Terre. Aujourd’hui encore, on utilise les expressions « lever de soleil » ou « coucher de soleil » même si on sait très bienque c’est la Terre qui tourne autour du Soleil.

Idée reçue : La Bible dit que la terre est plate.

Réalité : La Bible emploie l’expression « les extrémités de la terre » pour parler de « la région la plus lointaine de la terre » (Actes 1:8 ; note). Elle ne veut pas dire par là que la terre est plate ou qu’elle a un bord. De même, l’expression « quatre coins de la terre » est une figure de style qui désigne toute la surface de la terre (Isaïe 11:12 ; Luc 13:29). Aujourd’hui, on utilise la même image en parlant des quatre coins du globe.

Idée reçue : La Bible dit que la circonférence d’un cercle est précisément égale à trois fois son diamètre, alors que le nombre exact est pi (π), c’est-à-dire environ 3,1416.

Réalité : Selon 1 Rois 7:23 et 2 Chroniques 4:2, « la Mer en métal fondu » avait un diamètre de 10 coudées et « il fallait une corde de 30 coudées pour en mesurer le tour ». Ce n’étaient peut-être que les chiffres ronds les plus proches des valeurs réelles. Il est aussi possible que la circonférence corresponde aux mesures intérieures du bassin, et le diamètre aux mesures extérieures.

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