Le G20 approuve une réforme fiscale historique, mais patine sur le climat

Les dirigeants du G20, réunis samedi, à Rome, ont approuvé une réforme fiscale mondiale, celle de la taxation minimale des multinationales. Mais les discussions se poursuivent pour trouver un accord sur leurs engagements climatiques, à quelques heures du début de la COP26.  

C’était la seule certitude d’avancée concrète pour ce sommet : la fiscalité. Les dirigeants du G20 réunis à Rome, jusqu’à dimanche, ont approuvé samedi 30 octobre, l’accord historique sur une réforme de la taxation internationale, qui ambitionne de mettre fin aux paradis fiscaux en instaurant un impôt mondial minimal de 15 % sur les bénéfices des multinationales. La lutte contre le Covid-19 et la relance économique mondiale sont aussi au menu des discussions. Mais à la veille de la COP26 en Écosse, tous les yeux sont tournés vers le G20  qui donnera le ton de la volonté des grandes économies mondiales dans la lutte contre le réchauffement climatique.

Réforme fiscale historique

“Aujourd’hui, tous les chefs d’État du G20 ont approuvé un accord historique sur de nouvelles règles fiscales internationales, incluant une taxe minimum mondiale, qui mettra un terme à la course au moins-disant en matière d’imposition des sociétés”, a annoncé, samedi, la secrétaire américaine au Trésor, Janet Yellen, dans un communiqué.

Cet accord avait été conclu début octobre sous l’égide de l’OCDE par 136 pays, qui représentent plus de 90 % du PIB mondial. La réforme devrait permettre à ces pays de dégager environ 150 milliards de dollars de recettes supplémentaires par an.ADVERTISING

Cette réforme devrait entériner la taxation minimale mondiale à 15 % sur les bénéfices des multinationales. En ligne de mire, les entreprises qui réalisent plus de 20 milliards d’euros de chiffre d’affaires mondial et dont la rentabilité est supérieure à 10 %. Un État pourra taxer les profits étrangers d’une de ses entreprises nationales qui aurait été imposée à l’étranger. Une part de l’impôt sur les bénéfices payés par les multinationales pourra être réaffectée aux pays où elles réalisent leurs activités. L’impôt ne sera donc plus dû uniquement aux pays où leurs sièges sociaux sont installés.

Le feu vert sera formellement officialisé dans le communiqué final du G20 dimanche, selon plusieurs sources proches des négociations à Rome.

Le climat au cœur des discussions

Les chefs d’État et de gouvernement partiront à Glasgow à peine la réunion du G20 achevée, dimanche, à Rome. Mais leur capacité à s’entendre ce week-end sur des engagements forts pour le climat n’est pas garantie.

Le chef du gouvernement italien, Mario Draghi, avait plaidé, début octobre, pour “un engagement du G20 sur la nécessité de limiter la hausse des températures à 1,5 degré”, l’objectif le plus ambitieux de l’accord de Paris. “Nous n’allons pas stopper le réchauffement climatique à Rome ou à cette réunion de la COP”, a reconnu le Premier ministre britannique, Boris Johnson, dans l’avion l’amenant dans la capitale italienne. “Le plus que nous pouvons espérer, c’est ralentir l’augmentation” des températures.

“Nous devons être plus ambitieux” sur le climat, a ainsi affirmé le président du Conseil européen, Charles Michel, évoquant “deux débats en parallèle : devrions-nous améliorer notre ambition commune au niveau du G20, renforcer les objectifs sur la neutralité climatique (…). Et aussi, quels sont les objectifs concrets ?”

Le dirigeant européen a également reconnu que la question était difficile, notamment “pour certains pays dépendant du charbon”. “Nous allons avoir du mal et nous ferons de notre mieux pour convaincre les pays qui sont encore réticents”.

La veille déjà, le secrétaire général de l’ONU, Antonio Guterres, avait à nouveau tiré la sonnette d’alarme sur le risque de “catastrophe climatique” et pointé la “responsabilité particulière” des pays du G20. Ce groupe qui comprend entre autre les États-Unis, l’Union européenne, mais aussi la Chine, la Russie et l’Inde, représente la plus grosse partie des émissions mondiales de gaz à effet de serre. 

Pékin a montré un signe d’inflexion en promettant, en septembre, de cesser de construire des centrales au charbon à l’étranger. Mais la Chine, et avec elle beaucoup de pays émergents, dépend encore énormément de cette énergie fossile très émettrice de CO2, notamment pour faire tourner ses centrales électriques dans le contexte actuel de crise énergétique.

Les pénuries et les problèmes qui se multiplient dans la chaîne logistique mondiale, et menacent de faire dérailler le rythme de la reprise économique, se sont invités dans le menu des discussions du G20, qui abordera aussi dette des pays les plus pauvres ou efforts pour vacciner la planète contre le Covid-19.

Les dirigeants profitent également du G20 de retour en présentiel, pour la première fois depuis le début de la pandémie, pour multiplier les rencontres bilatérales ou en petit comité. Emmanuel Macron, qui a déjà mis en scène, vendredi, sa réconciliation avec Joe Biden après l’affaire des sous-marins, a aussi prévu de rencontrer, dimanche, Boris Johnson, sur fond de crise entre leurs deux pays sur la pêche post-Brexit.

 sources: France24 Avec AFP

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